3.11 – Clockmaking in Canada Through the Clockmakers

Last Update: 08-25-2022 @ 09:39

Clockmaking in Canada

In the following, we will focus on the great moments in the history of Canadian clockmaking. Our primary sources are Bergeron, 1979; Burrows, 1973; Varkaris & Connell, 1993; Connell, 1999; Mallory, 2011 (see complete references in Bibliographie) and the website of The Canadian Clock Museum. The history of clockmaking in Canada is closely related to the great moments in Canadian history. Like the historians of Canadian clockmaking, we have retained the significant periods of the history of Canada, from the French Regime to the Confederation, through the British Regime, the two Canada, and the Union of the Two Canada. We have preserved in their original language the names of the places where the clockmakers of the time practiced. The focus here is on clockmakers, sellers, and clock manufacturers. There are two ways to browse the list of Canadian Clockmakers:

  1. Through the tables below, click on the name of a clockmaker to see his contribution. To return to the beginning of the table, click on the Back button.
  2. Just click on the link to browse an alphabetical list:
    Artisans, peddlers, and manufacturers.

3.11.1 – The Highlights

1620-1763 – French Regime

At the beginning of the colony, clocks were very rare. Early settlers mostly used sundials to get a rough idea of the time of day and hourglasses to measure the time of an event. It is said that Samuel de Champlain had a clock that he had probably brought back from France. The Quebec Seminary had one in 1694. The first public clock in Nouvelle-France was installed in Montreal at the end of the 17th century. The few other clocks found from this period are the work of wealthy settlers who could have brought them from France or clockmakers who would have brought movements and parts. But nothing is less specific since not many of the clockmaking artifacts of that time have been found. However, it was almost by chance that the first clockmaker could be identified. He would have been in business around 1729 (Bergeron, 1979). Here is a list of clockmakers from the French Regime.  clicking on one of the names in the table will get you a short description.

FIRST CLOCKMAKERS OF THE FRENCH REGIMETOWN
(Active)
PIERRE-HENRI SOLOQuébec
(1729-173?)
JEAN-BAPTISTE FILIAU dit DUBOISQuébec and Montréal
(1730-1760)
LOUIS FOUREUR dit CHAMPAGNEQuébec
(?-c.1790)
FRANÇOIS VALIN Québec
(c. 1750)
JACQUES GOSSELIN Québec
(1758)

1763-1791 – English Regime

The British Regime begins after the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which enshrines the cession by France to England of Quebec and Ontario, that is to say Canada at the time, and many other considerations Worldwide. The equivalent of today’s Maritime provinces, with the exception of Newfoundland, already belonged to them. This treaty follows endless wars and the capitulation of Quebec during the famous Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The conquest of New France by the British allowed the installation in Canada of a few watchmakers from England who brought with them movements but also complete clocks, mainly longcase clocks.

After the fall of Quebec to the English, the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick opened their doors to settlers who came in large numbers to establish there. Several clockmakers familiar with the techniques learned in England or Scotland brought and imported English clocks. Also, after the American Revolution of 1776, several American Loyalists and Federalists fled the United States to settle in Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and the newly created New Brunswick colony in 1784. And among them were some New England clockmakers, so the market opened up for American clocks, which were much less expensive to acquire than clocks imported from England or France. From this period of the British Regime until around 1791, the following main watchmakers can be identified:

FIRST CLOCKMAKERS
OF THE BRITISH REGIME
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JAMES HANNAQuébec
(1763-1807)
FRANÇOIS DUMOULINMontréal
(1775-?)
JAMES GRANTQuébec
(1783)

1791-1840 – Two Canada

Loyalists, already broken in parliamentarianism, and criticizing the presence of French civil laws and the influence of the Catholic religion, began to call for the creation of a House of Assembly and to claim the title of “Canadians” previously reserved for French-speaking subjects. The English governors had to find solutions to accommodate them. With a House of Commons being introduced in the province of Quebec, the Loyalists wanted a separate district. Thus, the province of Quebec has been divided into two parts, one to the east, where francophones were in the majority, and the other to the west, where Anglophones had a majority, each with its parliament. Lower and Upper Canada were enshrined in the Constitutional Act of June 10, 1791.

During this period in Lower and Upper Canada, there were two types of clock dealers, itinerant sellers and jewelers or/and clockmakers who had a shop or a storefront, and very few genuine manufacturers. Itinerant vendors mainly bought their clocks from New England manufacturers and put a label in their name, suggesting they were the manufacturers. Some did not hesitate to stick their label over the manufacturer’s original label. These vendors, often called “peddlers,” tour the villages and countryside of the county where they lived. Sometimes buyers paid them in kind, offering them lodging and cover in exchange for clocks. This itinerant sales practice will continue until the mid-19th century. The other type of merchant consists of jewelers and clockmakers who also bought clocks from New England, U. S. A., and imported them from England, sometimes even fetching them during long boat crossings. Some of these could have been self-made cases or made by local cabinetmakers. Movements, sometimes English, were mainly American because it was easier to get them, but still, the exception was installed in the cases. A few clockmakers have been considered manufacturers, but they were rare during that period. As we shall see in the following tables, they were the Twiss brothers in Lower Canada, Ruben Burr in Upper Canada, Tulles, Pallister, and Mc Donald, and Butler and Henderson in Nova Scotia.

1791-1840 – TWO CANADA: LOWER CANADA

Here is a list of the foremost peddlers (in the same column, a manufacturer) and clockmakers who had a workshop or storefront in a city, mainly Quebec City, Montreal, and Trois-Rivières.

PEDDLERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
ASAHEL BARNESAcadie / Montréal
(1821-1822)
JAMES ORKNEYQuébec
(1786-1818)
BALLERAY AND CO.Longueuil
(c. 1830-1840)
G. S. H. BELLEROSETrois-Rivières
(1790-1843)
PORTER KIMBALLStanstead
(c. 1830-1841)
ATKINSON AND PETERSONMontréal
(1791 & 1818)
JAMES GRANT Montréal
(1792-1799)
JOHN LUMSDENMontréal
(?-1804)
CLOCKMAKERSTOWN
(ACTIVE)
JOSEPH PETITCLAIRMontréal
(1791-1797)
TWISS BROTHERSMontréal
(1821-1851)
CHARLES ARNOLDIMontréal
(19th c.)
ARNOLDI & COMENSMontréal
(1807-1811)
MICHEL ROUSSEAUQuébec
(19th c.)
JAMES GODFREY HANNAQuébec
(1807-1818)
MARTIN CHENEYMontréal
(1809-1820)
CHENEY & DWIGHTMontréal
(1809-1819)
DWIGHT & GRIFFINMontréal
(1816-c. 1818)
DWIGHT & SAVAGEMontréal
(1818-?)
G. SAVAGE & SON
Montréal
(1819-1849)
RICHARD CATTONQuébec
(1819-1821)
WILLIAM NORTHGRAVESQuébec
(c. 1819-1825)
Montréal
(1825-1829)
XAVIER CLÉMENTMontréal
(c. 1820)
DWIGHT & TWISTMontréal
(1821)
C. J. R. ARDOUINQuébec
(1822-1865)
THOMAS G. CATHRO or CATHARQuébec
(1822-1844)
WELLS AND MACKENZIEQuébec
(1822-1826)
EDWARD WADEQuébec
(1826-1845)
WILLIAM McMASTER Québec
(1827-1854)
MICHEL LAMONTAGNEQuébec
(1833-1865)
JOHN WOOD AND SONMontréal
(c. 1839-1864)
JOHN WOOD & CO.Montréal
(1865)
WOOD AND ALLANMontréal
(1865-1869)
JOHN WOOD & SONMontréal
(1869-1872)

1791-1840 – TWO CANADA: UPPER CANADA

Here is a list of the foremost peddlers (in the same column, a manufacturer) and clockmakers who had a workshop or storefront in a city, here mainly York (named Toronto later), Brockville, Niagara, Hamilton, Bytown (later named Ottawa), Kingston, etc.

PEDDLERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
H. & C. BURRDundas
(1830-1835)
ELISHA PURDYNiagara & York
(1800-?)
DAVID SMITHGodmanchester
(1838-?)
JORDAN POSTYork
(1802-1834)
R. B. FIELD & CO.Brockville
(1833-1836)
(1840-1851)
GEORGE SAVAGE AND CO.Toronto
(1829-?)
JOHN N. KLINEVaughan Township
(c. 1830)
SAMUEL I. MOYERLincoln County
(c. 1830)
WILLIAM WILLOXNiagara Peninsula
(c. 1830)
R. WOODRUFFBurford
(c. 1830)
CLOCKMAKERSTOWN
(ACTIVE)
H. UTLEY & CO.Niagara Falls
(c. 1824-c. 1835)
REUBEN BURRYork County
(c. 1838-c. 1842)

1791-1840: BRITISH COLONIES IN THE MARITIMES

Here is a list of the foremost peddlers (in the same column, a few manufacturers), and clockmakers who had a workshop or a storefront in a city, here mainly Halifax, Pictou, Falmouth in Nova Scotia (N.S.), Fort Cumberland, Fredericton, St. John in New Brunswick (N.B.), and Charlottetown in Prince Edward Island (P. E. I.). In the following tables, we kept the English abbreviations of the era.

PEDDLERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
GORDON GILCHRISTSaint Andrews,
N. B.
(1819-1835)
PETER ETTER -►
PETER ETTER’S JEWELLERY STORE
Halifax, N. S.
(1778-1781)
(1781-1787)
DAVID SMITHSaint John, N. B.
(c. 1830)
CHARLES GEDDESHalifax, N. S.
(1783-c. 1807)
GEORGE STEELHorton, N. S.
(1831)
BENJAMIN ETTER -► ETTER AND TIDMARSH -► ETTER AND HOSTERMAN -► B. ETTER & HOSTERMANFort Cumberland, N. B.
(1787-1803 ; 1803-1806 ; 1803-1813 ; 1813-1815)
B. A. UPSONSaint John, N. B.
(c. 1830)
THOMAS BISBROWNHalifax, N. S.
(1790-1799)
WOLHAUPTER AND SONSFredericton, N. B.
(1795-1840)
CLOCKMAKERS/
PEDDLERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
ALEXANDER TROUPHalifax, N. S.
(1805-1856)
TULLES, PALLISTER & MCDONALDHalifax, N. S.
(1810-1812)
JOHN JURYCharlottetown, P. E. I.
(1813-1903)
ROMAN M. BUTLER Saint John, N. B.
(1828-1835)
THOMAS NISBET (cabinet & clock case maker)Saint John, N. B.
(1815-?)
BUTLER & HENDERSONAnnapolis N. S.
(c. 1824)
RICHARD UPHAM MARSTERSHalifax, N. S.
(1817-1831-2)
BUTLER HENDERSON & CO.Clement, N. S.
(c. 1830-c. 1835)
RICHARD UPHAM MARSTERS Falmouth, N. S.
(1834-1845)
MOSES BARRETTWestmorland, N. B.
Yarmouth, N. S.
Amherst, N. S.
(1830-1845)
JOHN GEDDIEPictou, N. S.
(1817-1843)
BARRETT AND LADDAmherst, N. S.
(1835-1840)
WILLIAM CRAWFORDLiverpool
(1817-1826)
Halifax, N. S.
(1826-1842)
WM. CRAWFORD & SONHalifax, N. S.
(1842-1865)
W. & G. HUTCHINSONSaint John, N. B.
(1820-1834)
WILLIAM HUTCHINSON Saint John, N. B.
(1834-1856)
GEORGE HUTCHINSONSaint John, N. B.
(1834-1854)
JOHN TRENAMANCharlottetown, P. E. I.
(1820-?)
WILLIAM C. GOSSIPHalifax, N. S.
(1822-?)
JUSTIN SPAHNFredericton, N. B.
(1823-1856)
JAMES GODFREY MELICKSaint John, N. B.
(1824-1864)

1840-1867 – The Union

Following Lord Durham’s report commissioned by Queen Victoria of England, the Crown decided to unite Canada, the Lower, and the Upper. The Act of Union of 1840 sealed the pact of a province of United Canada. A Legislative Assembly is born from this decision. There were two prime ministers, one for Canada East, the geographic equivalent of Lower Canada, and the other for Canada West, the geographic equivalent of Upper Canada. These prime ministers acted as advisers to the Governor-General. The Maritime provinces are not yet part of that Canada. There still are British colonies. We have kept this division in the following tables of the clockmakers and manufacturers of that time.

1840-1867 – UNION: CANADA EAST

There is only one manufacturer in Canada East, and he is in Montreal. However, more and more clockmakers are opening shops in Quebec City and Montreal.

CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
ERNEST CHANTELOUPMontréal
(c. 1860-?)
C. J. ARDOUINQuébec
(1837-1865)
WILLIAM M. BAXTERQuébec
(1844-1857)
DAVID SAVAGEMontréal
(1841-1847)
CYRILLE DUQUETQuébec
(1841-1922)
JAMES A. DWIGHT & SONMontréal
(1842-1845)
THOMAS DRYSDALEQuébec
(1844-1849)
M. ARDOUIN & SONQuébec
(1844-1852)
N. TURCOT, WATCH AND CLOCKMAKER, & C.Québec
(1844-1882)
PETER POULIN & SONQuébec
(1852-1855)
SAVAGE AND LYMANMontréal
(1851-1857)
WILLIAM JR. & THOMAS McMASTERQuébec
(1854-1868)
SAVARD ET FRÈRESQuébec
(1857-1885)
GUSTAVE SEIFERTQuébec
(1857-1863)

1840-1867 – UNION: CANADA WEST

There are still several itinerant vendors in Canada West, but several clocks, silver, and jewelry stores are opening in major cities such as Toronto, Hamilton, Guelph, Withby, etc. There were no organized clock factories at that time in Canada West.

PEDDLERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
S. J. SOUTHWORTHLeeds County
(1840-1870)
CHARLES SEWELLToronto
(1831-1849)
A. S. WHITINGCobourg
(1842-?)
GEORGE NORTHGRAVESBrockville
(1832-1851)
Perth
(1857-1871)
PFAFF & HASSVaughan Township
(c. 1843-?)
CHARLES CLINKUNBROOMERToronto
(1833-1853)
TURNER L. ABELLeeds / Granville
(1848-1852)
P. W. BARGANTZ & CO.Bertie Township
(1841-1849)
B. B. BARTLETTAugusta
(c. 1850)
T. J. WHEELERGeorgetown
(1846-1863)
W. H. VAN TASSELBrockville
(c. 1850)
DAVID SAVAGEGuelph
(1848-1857)
A. H. BROWNLeeds County
(1856-1867)
JOHN LESLIEBytown
(1848-c. 1900)
GEORGE JR. CAINLindsay
(c. 1860)
GEORGE LACY DARLINGWhitby & Simcoe
(1849-1890)
J. M. PATTERSONToronto & Hamilton
(1850-1860)
HENRY WHITNEY AND BROTHER Brockville
(c. 1850-1860)
ROBERT OSBORNEHamilton
(1851-?)
NEWBURY AND BEEMERHamilton
(1851-1857)
C. H. VAN NORMAN & CO.Hamilton
(1851-1865)
GEORGE NORTHGRAVES AND SON Perth
(1852-1906)
R. W. PATTERSON & CO.Toronto
(1850-1860)
NEWBURY & BIRLEYHamilton
(1857-1864)
LEVI BEEMERHamilton
(1857-1865)
JOHN WANLESS & SUSAN BELL -► JOHN WANLESS & CO.Toronto
(c. 1860-1862)
(1862-1908)
THOMAS LEES SR.Hamilton
(1861-1920)
A. S. NEWBURYHamilton
(1864-?)

1840-1867 – BRITISH COLONIES IN THE MARITIMES

Peddlers are still very much present in the Maritimes. But as in Canada, there are several goldsmith-jeweler and clockmaker shops in major cities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and even Newfoundland.

PEDDLERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
B. YOUNG & BROTHERSAmherst, N. S.
Saint Stephen, N. B.
(1840-1850)
ROBERT H. COGSWELLHalifax, N. S.
(1830-1902)
WHITCOMB FAIRBANKS AND CO.Saint John, N. B.
(1840-1877)
JAMES AGNEWSaint John, N. B.
(1834-1850)
GEORGE HUTCHINSONSaint John, N. B.
(1834-1854)
G. & G. HUTCHINSONSaint John, N. B.
(1856-1860-1874)
W. S. FLETCHERPictou, N. S.
(1839-?)
Charlottetown, P. E. I. (1851-?)
HUNT & CO.Saint Stephen, N. B.
(1841-1845)
WILLIAM T. PARSONSSaint John, Newfoundland
(c. 1845-1873)
JOHN TOBINBeaver River N. S.
(c. 1847)
JAMES WHITEFredericton, N. B.
(c. 1850)
PLUMMER & MITCHELLSaint John, N. B.
(c. 1850-c. 1864)
WILLIAM H. PATTERSONSaint John, N. B.
(c. 1850-c. 1899)
D. O. L. WARLOCKSaint John, N. B.
(1857-1900)
ALEXANDER TROUP JR.Halifax, N. S.
(1858-?)
PAGE BROTHERSSaint John, N. B.
(1860-1874)
JAMES CARRHalifax, N. S.
(1863-1897)

1867 to the Present Day – The Canadian Confederation

As of Confederation, there are still many shops, but some tend to form store chains. The creation of Birks is the most striking example. A true Canadian clock manufacturing industry was formed during this period, especially in Ontario. Still, most companies would not withstand foreign competition, especially since in the first half of the 20th century, U.S. manufacturers sniffing the bargains would open branches in Canada, mainly in Ontario. It is also clear that the Second World War harmed most Canadian manufacturers. It became challenging to find brass to make movements, and the movements themselves, often imported from the United States, England, and Germany, we’re becoming less and less available. As of the 1980s, there were almost no significant manufacturers.

1867 TO THE PRESENT DAY: PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
SAVAGE AND LYMAN -► SAVAGE, LYMAN & CO.Montréal
(1872-1878)
EGGAR AND COMPANYMontréal
(1885)
EUROPEAN BAZAR -► SEIFERT G. & SONS, INC.Québec
(1872-1899)
(1899-1930)
J. L. FORTIER ET COMPAGNIEQuébec
(1885)
KINNEHAN BROTHERSWest Farnham
(1875)
THE MONTREAL WATCH CASEMontréal
(1887-1909)
PAILLÉ ET BEAUVAISQuébec
(1875)
EDWARD P. BAIRD MANUFACTURINGMontréal
(1887-1890)
HENRY BIRKS AND SONSMontréal
(1879…)
A STEWART & SONRichmond
(1895)
J. H. D. CODÈRESherbrooke
(1880-1925)
WENGER’S LTDMontréal
(1923-….)
NAPOLÉON JALBERTMontréal
(1884-1918)
THE FLEET TIME COMPANY LTDMontréal
(1936-1940)
SAVARD ET CIEQuébec
(1885-?)
MARATHON WATCHMontréal
(1939-….)
FOUCHER, FILS ET CIEMontréal et Québec
(1890-1895)
THE CANADIAN NEON RAY CLOCK CO.Montréal
(1942-1965)
J. N. WHITE AND COMPANYCoaticook
(1895)
BENJAMIN H.
LECHTER
Montréal
(1945-1948?)
WILLIAM S. WALKER AND COMPANYMontréal
(c. 1895)
AMERICAN WATCH CO.
OF CANADA
Montréal
(1948)
KERCO JEWELLERY LTDMontréal
(1935-1949)
CANAVA
AMERICAN WATCH
FACTORY LTD
Québec
(1952-1953?)
ARO CANADAMontréal
(196?- ?)
LES HORLOGES DE BEAUCESt-Georges-de-Beauce
(1981-2002)
AMERICAN DIVISIONSTOWN
(ACTIVE)
INGERSOLL-WATERBURY CLOCK CO.Montréal
(c. 1920-c. 1932)
EDWARDS AND COMPANY OF CANADAMontréal
(1929-2003)

1867 TO THE PRESENT DAY: PROVINCE OF ONTARIO – Table 1

JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
JAMES RADFORDOttawa
(1860-1880)
THE CANADA CLOCK CO.Whitby
(1872-1876)
Hamilton
(1880-1884)
STEPHEN WILLCOCKToronto
(1867-1895)
THE HAMILTON CLOCK CO. -► THE CANADA CLOCK CO.Hamilton
(1876-1880)
WHITEHEAD AND COMPANYStratford
(c. 1868)
L. S. SAUNDERS AND COMPANY -► L. S. & C. L. SAUNDERSBarrie
(1875-1880- ?)
J. H. THRALLLanark County
(c. 1869-?)
W. C. FOX AND COMPANYToronto
(1879-1880)
KENT BROTHERSToronto
(1869-1949)
AMERICAN WATCH CASE CO.Toronto
(1885-1939)
JOHN DUNCAN COLQUHOUNWales
(c. 1870-?)
WALL AND TAYLORToronto
(c. 1885)
GEORGE HESSHay Township & Zurich
(1870-1891)
HENTSCHEL CLOCKWaterloo
Kitchener
(1890-?)
HAGGARTY AND COMPANYWindsor
(1871)
GEORGE SPANENBERG & BROTHERBelleville
(1895-?)
JAMES R. ORMOND AND COMPANYPeterborough
(1871)
THE ARTHUR PEQUEGNAT CLOCK CO.Berlin
(1904-1916)
Kitchener
(1916-1941)
P. W. ELLIS & CO. (ELLIS BROS. LIMITED)Toronto
(1872-1928)
THE BLACK FOREST CLOCK COMPANYToronto
(1928-1941)
WILSON AND MCCALLWoodstock
(1875)
WALTER STONKUS & SON CLOCKSToronto
(1930-c. 1960-1965)
TAYLOR AND BARNARDWhitby
(1875)
THE FORESTVILLE CLOCK COMPANYToronto
(1941-1982)
NATHAN MARKSOttawa
(1875-1880) (1880-1890)
ELLEN MARJORIE BERTRAMOttawa
(1943-1944)
JACKSON AND BUHLSt. Thomas
(1880)
BRESLIN INDUSTRIESToronto
(c. 1945-c.1980)
S. FLOWER AND SONClinton
(1880)
THE SNIDER CLOCKS CO. -► THE SNIDER CLOCK MFG CO.Toronto
(1950-1957)
(1957-1976)
SMITH BROTHERSKingston
(1880-1900)
GIROTTI SCULPTURED ARTSt. Catherines
(1964-1979)
JOHN K. LEMPTavistock
(1880- c. 1937)
ERGO INDUSTRIES LTDMarkham
(1966-?)
F. W. SMITH -►
F. W. SMITH AND BROTHER
Napanee
(1880-1885)
(1885-1900)
MURRAY CLOCK CRAFT LTDSaint-George
(c. 1977-1994)
A. & A. NEILSONPerth (1885)MAC ALPINE FURNITURESaint-George
(1984…)
HOWARD FELT -► HOWARD AND EVERETT FELT -► HOWARD AND NEIL FELTOshawa
(1886-1892)
(1892-1900)
(1935-1949-1962)
THE PEQUEGNAT CLOCK CO. OF CANADAManotick
(1984-1997)
HENRY PLAYTNERToronto
(1889-1913)
AREK’S MURRAY CLOCKS INC.Saint-George
(c. 1994…)
EDWARD A. BEETONToronto
(1889-1933)
C. A. OLMSTED -►
BIRK’S Manager
Ottawa
(1890-1903)
(1903-1915)
OLMSTED & SON -► OLMSTED & OLMSTED -► OLMSTED’SOttawa
(1915-1943)
CLARA STEPHENSONToronto
(c. 1890-1909)
REGINALD
WILSON AND COMPANY
St. Mary’s
(1895)
JERRY SMITHBrantford
(1900-1902)
Richmond Hill
(1902-1953)
J. G. TATE AND COMPANYPeterborough
(1900-?)
GEORGE & THOMAS JACK LEESHamilton
(1920-1947)
THOMAS JOHN LEES & RALPH WILKENSON LEESHamilton
(1947-1974)
SAUNDERS LORIE AND COMPANY LTDWest Toronto
(1926-1946?)
JULIEN-PIERRE LE GODAISToronto
(1928?-1929 ?)
EDWARD REESWestmount
(1938-1947?)

1867 TO THE PRESENT DAY: PROVINCE OF ONTARIO – Table 2

IMPORTANT
HOROLOGISTS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
AMERICAN MANUFACTURERSTOWN
(ACTIVE)
NATHAN FELLOWS DUPUISKingston
(1836-1917)
THE WESTERN CLOCK CO. LTDPeterborough
(1912-1980)
SIR SANDFORD FLEMINGToronto
(1845)
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINE CO. LTDToronto
(1917….)
WARREN MARRISONInverary, Ontario
New Jersey Bell Laboratories (1927)
THE NEW HAVEN CLOCK CO.Brantford
(1930-1950)
CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRICToronto
(c. 1930-c.1959)
CLOCKMAKING SCHOOLCANADIAN JEFFERSON ELECTRIC CO. LTDToronto
(?)
THE CANADIAN HOROLOGICAL INSTITUTEToronto
(1890-1913)
SETH THOMAS CLOCKS CANADAPeterborough
(1930-1985)
THE HAMMOND COMPANY OF CANADA LTDToronto
(1931-1936)
INGRAHAM CANADIAN CLOCK CO. LTDToronto
(1948-1980)
GREAT-BRITAIN DIVISIONTOWN
(ACTIVE)
RUSSELL WATCH AND CHRONOMETER MANUFACTORYToronto
(c. 1879-?)

1867 TO THE PRESENT DAY: MARITIMES PROVINCES

JEWELLERS-
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
CLOCKMAKERS
TOWN
(ACTIVE)
GEORGE JR. & DANIEL HUTCHINSONSt. John, N. B.
(1874-1884)
THE EARLE CLOCK CO.St. John, N. B.
(1912)
JOHN E. SANCTON -► JOHN E. SANCTON & SONBridgetown, N. S.
(1864-1900-?)
THE LOYALIST CLOCK COMPANYSheffield, N. B.
(1977-1990)
HARPER BROTHERS -►
A. HARPER -►
W. N. AND A. HARPER
Chatham, N. B.
(1868-1871)
(1880)
(1885-1900)
N. AND J. JILLARD -► 
JILLARD BROTHERS
Harbour Grace, Newfoundland
(1868-1875)
(1875-?)
H. A. & J. TOMKINSFredericton, N. B.
(1871-185)
W. G. ROSS  -►
W. G. ROSS AND COMPANY
Halifax, N. S.
(1876-1878)
(1878-1881)
PAGE, SMALLEY, AND FERGUSONSt. John, N. B.
(1877-1887)
WILLIAM W. WELLNERCharlottetown, P. E. I.
(1868-1907)
WILLIAM T. WELLNER -► WW. WELLNER CO.Charlottetown, P. E. I.
(1907-1919)
(1919-1960)

3.11.2 – Craftsmen, Peddlers, and Manufacturers

NOTE: in the following list, the alphabetical order follows the family or company names. So the first name or the initials are put between parenthesis before the name. When a company name begins with “The,” it is classified by the letter “T.” We made a separate list for the Divisions of American companies established in Canada.

(TURNER L.) ABEL

Turner L. Abel was a peddler of Seth Thomas clocks, mostly 8-day column and cornice, 30-hour half column, and 30-hour OG, in Leeds and Grenville County, Canada West, from 1848 to 1852, with a customized label with his name on it, like this clock from The Canadian Clock Museum.

(JAMES) AGNEW

James Agnew (?-1850), horologist and jeweler from St. John, New Brunswick, from 1834-1845, sold mostly tall-case clocks with British movements. BACK

AMERICAN WATCH CASE CO.

The company was organized in 1885, and the factory was established in 1893. In 1903, the U.S. Keystone Watch Case Co. became a 42% shareholder in the Canadian company, and Elgin and Waltham owned the remainder of the shares. The company reportedly ceased operations in Canada in 1939. An American company of the same name was active in New York from 1893. BACK

AMERICAN WATCH CO. OF CANADA

Watch and clock company from Montreal, Quebec, whose trademark SANTA was registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademarks Office in 1948. BACK

(C. J. R.) ARDOUIN

Charles James Robert Ardouin (c. 1792-1837) came to Quebec City, Lower Canada, with family members from London, England, in 1820. He was a silversmith, engraver, clock, and watchmaker and worked from 1822 to 1826. He died between 1826 and 1844 (Varkaris & Connell, 1993). The clocks he sold had their cases probably made in Quebec, but the movements came from England. There is one in the Royal Ontario Museum.  BACK

(C. J.) ARDOUIN

Charles James Ardouin (1820-c. 1877), son of Charles James Robert, worked with his father and continued the business in Quebec after his father died. Between 1865 and 1971, he left the clock business to become Chief Office Clerk of the Quebec Legislative Assembly. BACK

(M.) ARDOUIN

This M. Ardouin is maybe a brother of Charles James Robert and worked as a clock and watchmaker at Charles James Robert’s shop in Quebec City, Canada East, from 1844 to 1852. BACK

(CHARLES) ARNOLDI

Charles Arnoldi (1779-1817), jeweler, silversmith, and clockmaker, opened a Montreal, Lower Canada, shop at the beginning of the 19th century. BACK

ARNOLDI & COMENS

Charles Arnoldi partnered with Benjamin Comens, a silversmith who had just arrived from Vermont, U. S. A., in 1806. The association will not last very long, and in 1811, the business’s property was sold by the sheriff. In 1812, Charles Arnoldi moved to Lavaltrie, on the North shore of Montreal, where he became Postmaster. But the year after, in 1813, he came back to Montreal. BACK

ARO INC. CANADA

Aro Inc. Canada was a Montreal, Quebec company that assembled, probably in the 1960s, foreign movements in cases probably made outside Canada. Judging by their quality, I suspect an Asian fabrication. The timepiece I have is a kitchen style, higher than the traditional American ones, with a trapezoidal movement made by a Japanese company named Harimco Ltd. Aro also made schoolhouse-type timepieces. BACK

ASLATT AND CO.

This company fabricated watches and clocks in Vancouver, British Columbia, in the 1890s. BACK

ATKINSON AND PETERSON

We don’t know much about these two clockmakers except their names and “Montreal” figure on the dial and a plate of two clocks, one from 1791 and the other from 1818 (but probably built before). The first is in the Chateau Ramezay museum of Montreal, and the other is in the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. BACK

(EDWARD P.) BAIRD MANUFACTURING CO.

Edward Payson Baird (1860-1929), born in Philadelphia, U. S. A., worked for Seth Thomas from 1879 until 1887. He then moved to Montreal, Quebec, and created an advertising clock company and established manufacture on Queen Street in Montreal while opening a sales office in New York. His clocks had Seth Thomas movements. In Montreal, the cases were made in wood with a door with two circles, one to house the dial surrounding by the company’s name to advertise, and a lower one to put the company’s slogan. These doors were usually made in “papier mâché.” The Baird clocks were trendy, and he had so many clients in Great Britain and the United States that he decided to move the company to Plattsburgh, New York, U.S.A., in July 1890. But in 1896, a local sheriff seized all the company’s assets and sold them at an auction. That was the end of the Baird involvement in the clock business. He moved to Chicago in 1897 and was primarily involved in the telephone business. Canadian-made Baird clocks are very rare. The Canadian Clock Museum has one made in Montreal, Quebec, in its collection of advertising clocks. BACK

(JOSEPH) BALLERAY AND CO.

We don’t know much about Joseph Balleray except that he built and sold 30-hour American-style wood tall clocks in Longueuil, Lower Canada, from c. 1830 to 1840. BACK

(P. W.) BARGANTZ & CO.

This firm from Bertie Township, Canada West, sold mostly OG 30-hour clocks in the Niagara Peninsula from 1841 to 1849. BACK

(ASAHEL) BARNES

Asahel Barnes (1777-1859), an American born in Bristol, Connecticut, came to Acadia and Montreal, Lower Canada, 1821-1822. Before returning to Vermont, he sold one tall clock with a wood movement with his name on it. BACK

(MOSES) BARRETT

Moses Barrett (c.1800-1864) was born in New England in the early 19th century. As a clockmaker, he first settled in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, in the early 1930s and later in Amherst. Burrows (1973) indicates that he imported his movements from Connecticut, which he installed in pillars and scrolls and columns and splats style housings that he made himself during the Winter. And he put labels in his name. And in the Summer, as a single, he would travel across Nova Scotia with his cat to sell them. He is also said to have sold clocks in Westmorland, New Brunswick. He is also said to have bought American clocks of various brands on which he stuck his label, suggesting that he made them himself. According to Varkaris & Connell (1993), most movements installed in Barrett’s clocks were made of wood and mainly came from Silas Hoadley. They had the characteristic of ivory pivots, and especially of being assembled upside down, the escapement section is located at the bottom of the movement, probably bypassing Terry’s patents. BACK

BARRETT AND LADD

Moses Barrett was in Amherst from 1835 to 1840 and had a partner, Isaac Ladd, a cabinetmaker, whose name appears next to Barrett’s on some labels on the clocks sold by Barrett.BACK

(B. B.) BARTLETT

B. B. Bartlett sold Seth Thomas clocks labeled with his name in the region of Augusta, Canada West, c. 1850. BACK

(WILLIAM M.) BAXTER

William M. Baxter (1812-c.1878) was trained as a clockmaker and jeweler in Scotland. He came to Quebec City, Canada East, where he had a clockmaker shop from 1840 to 1880. BACK

(LEVI) BEEMER

Levi Beemer was a clock importer. He brought them from the United States by boat to the Port of Hamilton. In 1857, he had his shop on King Street in Hamilton, which he maintained until 1865. Arkle S. Newbury and Norris F. Birley were his associates from time to time. BACK

(EDWARD A.) BEETON

Edward A. Beeton (1861–1943) was one of the two sons of Joseph Beeton, an English immigrant pharmacist who came to the United States around 1840. The family moved to St. Catherines in c.1868. Around 1875, Edward apprenticed as a watchmaker at Fowler and Company in St. Catherines. He then married Lily and moved to Toronto. The couple had six children. The story goes that he moved to Toronto 17 times. In Toronto, he worked as a watchmaker for P. W. Ellis and Co. A year later, at Kent Brothers, he became chief of technicians in 1886. He met Henry Playtner, one of his technicians at Kent Brothers, who wanted to do increasingly complex work to perfect his apprenticeship in watchmaking. In 1887, in parallel with his work at Kent Brothers, Beeton became responsible for Trader‘s watch repair pages, a jewelers-watchmakers magazine. In 1896, he became its technical director. Near the end of 1889, he quit his job to start his own business with Playtner as a partner. That year, Beeton and Playtner had the project to open a training school for clockmakers. Soon after the opening of the Canadian Horological Institute in June 1890, Beeton left it to pursue his trade. Click on Canadian Horological Institute to know more about it.
Then in 1903, Beeton became a goodwill ambassador for the American firm Elgin National Watch Company till 1912. In 1904, he opened the firm’s first Canadian office. In 1912 he ran the Beeton Watch Company Ltd, where two of his sons would also work for some time before leaving it in turn. It closed its doors around 1915. Then, Beeton opened a small watch repair shop until his retirement in 1933. (Reference: Varkaris & Connell, 1993). BACK

(G. S. H.) BELLEROSE

We don’t know much about this Bellerose, who built high-quality tall clocks in Trois-Rivières, Canada East, from 1790 to 1843, many of them for wealthy persons. Most of the ones we know in existence had English movements. There is one at the Royal Ontario Museum. Benjamin Sulte, the famous Canadian journalist and author, wrote in The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, vol. IX, Montreal, July 1880: “At a later period 1815-30, H. Bellerose of Three Rivers, manufactured clocks specimens of which I have seen in good working order in various parishes of the district not many years ago. They were all made with Canadian material – no importation whatever.” BACK

(ELLEN MARJORIE) BERTRAM

The company reportedly produced and sold electrically controlled automatic clocks in 1944 in Ottawa, Ontario, under the trademark TEMPOSCOPE, registered at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in 1943. BACK

(HENRY) BIRKS AND SONS

The Birks family was from Sheffield, England. They emigrated to Canada in 1832. Established in Montreal, Quebec, Henry opened a jewelry store in 1879, Henry Birks and Sons. The store sold under their names clocks made in the US, mainly by Seth Thomas and France. Henry Birks bought over the years several jewel and clock stores: Savage Lyman & Co., Montreal in 1878, Seifert G. & Sons Inc., Quebec in 1899, and P. W. Ellis and Company, Toronto in 1928, to name just a few. Birks became the largest jewel store in Canada and still is. BACK

(THOMAS) BISBROWN

A Scottish-trained silversmith and clockmaker, Thomas Bisbrown, worked in Quebec city after 1784 and later in Albany, New York, U.S.A. He opened a shop in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he built and sold clocks bearing his name from 1790 to 1799. BACK

BRESLIN INDUSTRIES

In the mid-1940s, Edward Breslin established a company in Toronto specializing in lamps and lampshades, but he also made metal objects, such as figurines. According to The Canadian Clock Museum, he also sold clocks. This company closed its doors in the early 1980s. There is only one specimen of a Breslin clock in the museum. BACK

(A. H.) BROWN

Albert Henry Brown (1826-1894) is a peddler of clocks made especially for him by Seth Thomas that he sold in Leeds County, Canada West, from 1856-1867, and Brockville, Ontario c. 1870. See an example at The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(H. & C.) BURR

Horace (1792-1853) and Charles Burr (1804-?), born in New England, U. S. A., sold in Dundas, Upper Canada, between 1830 and 1835, imported American wood movements installed in transitional “pillar and splat” type cases, labeled with their names. There is one at the Royal Ontario Museum. The Burr’s were back in the states by 1836. BACK

(REUBEN) BURR

Ruben Burr (1766-1842) was born in Pensylvania, in the U.S.A. About 1838, he emigrated to Aurora, York County, High Canada. After practicing several trades, like carpentry, and even farming, he started to build longcase clocks near Woodbridge, in which he installed American movements made by John Kline from Kleinburg.

(ROMAN M.) BUTLER

Several clocks sold in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick bore the name Butler and Henderson in various forms. There would have been at least two Henderson, brothers James F. and W. T., and three Butlers, William Sr., and his two sons, Roman and Charles, involved in the various partnerships. They all came from Hartford, Connecticut, and were clock retailers often purchased from Samuel Terry. According to an inventory carried out in 1978, a quarter of the clocks from these associations were named after Roman M. Butler alone (Varkaris and Connell, 1993). Butler and Henderson manufactured twisted pillar clocks, colonettes, and transitional-type cases, in which 30-hour Eli Terry-type wooden movements were installed, acquired from various manufacturers. These clocks are said to have been sold from 1828 to 1835. BACK

BUTLER & HENDERSON  (ANNAPOLIS, N. S.);  BUTLER HENDERSON & CO.  (CLEMENT, N. S.)

The clocks bearing this name were manufactured in Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1824, like this one at The Canadian Clock Museum. The clocks bearing Butler Henderson and Co. were manufactured at the Clement, Nova Scotia, factory in the 1830s. Some of the clocks manufactured in one of the factories may have been labeled in the name of Roman M. Butler only. BACK

(GEORGE, Jr) CAIN

George Jr Cain sold Seth Thomas clocks under his name in Lindsay, West Canada, c. 1860. BACK

CANADIAN TIMES SYSTEMS, INC.

Founded in 1989, this Vancouver, British Columbia-based company specializes in time & attendance integration systems in the country’s West. It manufactures computer-based electronic clocks, employee time systems, guard clocks, etc. They specialize in wall clocks and master clock systems, and it also provides parts and accessories. Today it is the largest time integrator in North America. BACK

CANAVA AMERICAN WATCH FACTORY LTD

Quebec City watch company whose trademark CANAVA was registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in 1952-53. BACK

(JAMES) CARR

James Carr seems to have bought from Alexander Troup Sr.’s widow the Argyle Street shop in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1863. He had worked for the widow as the shop’s general manager, inherited from her late husband. He announced himself as the successor of Alexander Troup Sr. (Varkaris & Connell, 1993). BACK

(THOMAS G.) CATHRO or CATHAR

Thomas George Cathro was, in the first half of the 19th c., a “soldier” settler in Quebec who had received land in Buckland, Lower Canada. Still, he decided to establish in Quebec City, where he had a clock business between 1822-1844. He seemed to have the tall cases built locally, but the movements were British-made. BACK

(RICHARD) CATTON

Richard Catton, silversmith and clockmaker, immigrated from England to St John, Newfoundland, in 1815. In 1817, he moved to St John, New Brunswick, then in 1819, to Quebec City, Lower Canada, where he opened a shop on 13 Mountain Street where he announced the sale of jewels, chronometers, watches, and 8-day clocks, etc. It seems that as soon as 1821, we lost its trace because John Bean (1785-1830) took back the Mountain Street shop. BACK

(ERNEST) CHANTELOUP

Ernest Chanteloup’s name appeared on a small interior dial of a tower clock installed in the Post Office of Cornwall, Ontario. It was demolished in 1955, but they saved the clock. Ernest Chanteloup had a Foundry on Craig Street in Montreal since 1860, where he manufactured lamps, posts, and all sorts of garnitures or objects in iron or brass. In 1879, he announced that he could build tower clocks. BACK

(MARTIN) CHENEY

Martin Cheney (1778-c. 1855) comes from a well-known family in New England, U. S. A. After an apprenticeship in New England, he worked as a clockmaker in Windsor, Vermont, from 1803 to 1809. He then moved to Montreal, Quebec, in 1809. That year, he opened a shop on St Paul Street with James A. Dwight where they had on sale clocks and watches they fabricated. The partnership did not last very long. But Martin Cheney continued the fabrication of clocks, mostly banjos (see an example from the Royal Ontario Museum), wall tavern-style clocks, and a few tall-case clocks, for a good twenty years. It is worth noting that he built his movements for these clocks. He went to Whitby, Ontario, in 1846, but most of his Canadian clocks are from his Montreal period. BACK

CHENEY & DWIGHT

The first association of J. A. Dwight with Martin Cheney in Montreal, Quebec, took place in a shop on St-Paul street from 1809 to about 1815. BACK

(XAVIER) CLÉMENT

Xavier Clément was a Montreal clockmaker in 1820. There is one of his tall case clocks at The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(CHARLES) CLINKUNBROOMER

Charles Clinkunbroomer (1799-c.1867) was the first clockmaker born in Ontario, Canada, precisely in York (Toronto nowadays), Upper Canada, in 1799. He did his apprenticeship with Jordan Post, with whom he learned to make movements. After 1834, he opened many jewelry shops. He did not make many clocks, and their movements were similar to Post. But he was a very good silversmith. BACK

(J. H. D.) CODÈRE

Joseph H. D. Codère had a jewel store on Wellington Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, from 1880 to 1925. He is known because his name and the city appeared on several dials of Morbier-style clocks. BACK

(ROBERT H.) COGSWELL

Robert H. Cogswell (?-c.1907) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He emigrated to Canada and established a business in Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 1830 to 1902. His specialty was nautical instruments, compass, chronometers, astronomical clocks, etc. He also did a lot of watch repairing. He was responsible for the timekeeping for the ships sailing around Halifax, Greenwich, and Boston. He was also in charge of the Canadian railway time. He purchased the business of William Crawford in 1865, also a chronometer seller, and announced himself as the successor of Crawford. BACK

(JOHN DUNCAN) COLQUHOUN

John Duncan Colquhoun (1849-1946) is a descendant of a famous Scottish family. Some emigrated to Canada in the first quarter of the 19th century. John Duncan established in Wales, Ontario, in the 1870s and opened a jewelry and watch repair shop in Wales, Ontario (the town has been erased from the map for the construction of the St-Lawrence Seaway in 1958). As a horologist, Colquhoun is one of the rare Canadians to have obtained patents, one in 1886 (no 24125) and another in 1888 (no. 28877). BACK

(WILLIAM) CRAWFORD

William Crawford (c. 1795-?), born in Scotland, had a business store in Liverpool, Nova Scotia, from 1817 to 1826, then Halifax from 1826 to 1842, where he sold watches, chronometers, clocks, and silver goods. BACK

(WM) CRAWFORD & SON

William Crawford’s son joined the business from 1842 to 1865 under Wm Crawford & Son. Robert Cogswell bought it in 1865. BACK

(GEORGE LACEY) DARLING

George Lacey Darling (1823-1899) was born in Pennsylvania, U. S. A. He came to Canada as a child. He learned clockmaking in London, Canada West. He opened a shop in Withby for a short time. Then he moved to Simcoe in 1847 and established a shop in 1849 that he kept until 1890. His specialty was astronomical regulators. He built at least three of them. One is conserved at the Canadian Museum of History in Hull, Quebec. BACK

(THOMAS) DRYSDALE

Thomas Drysdale immigrated to New York with his family in 1832. At the end of the 1830s, he moved to Quebec City, Lower Canada, where he opened a jeweler shop and sold tall case clocks with his name on the dial from 1844 to 1849. BACK

(FRANÇOIS) DUMOULIN

François Dumoulin, in 1775, had a shop in Montreal, Lower Canada, where he sold British-made clocks with his name on the dial. There is one of his clocks in the Royal Ontario Museum. After some problems with the justice system and a stay in prison at the end of the century, he moved to Three Rivers, Quebec. After a prosecution by his second wife, the sheriff sold his property in 1807. BACK

(NATHAN FELLOWS) DUPUIS

Nathan Fellows Dupuis has been a famous professor at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. He was also a very skilled horologist. He developed several very complex experimental clocks that he never commercialized. BACK

(CYRILLE) DUQUET

Cyrille Duquet (1841-1922) was born in Quebec City. At age 13, he became an apprentice for seven years at the silversmith J.-P. Gendron shop, located on St John St. Quebec. In 1862, he opened a shop where he fabricated clocks and jewels. Duquet was also an inventor. In 1866, he presented a successful clock at an exhibition in Montreal where the movement is hidden on the back of the hands. In 1870, he invented a chronometer to determine the exact hour a watchman arrived at a verification point. The New Haven Clock Co. of Connecticut bought the patent. In 1872, he designed a technique to electrify tower clocks. The National Assembly of Quebec and the Quebec City Hall clocks are equipped with his mechanism. He later invented a telephone system that established communication between his home and his shop, while Graham Bell invented telephone communication. For more details, see Wikipedia. BACK

(JAMES ADAM) DWIGHT

James Adams Dwight, an American established in Montreal, Lower Canada, was a silversmith and clockmaker from 1806 to c. 1846. He is known to have been associated with several excellent clockmakers, sometimes for a short period. BACK

DWIGHT & GRIFFIN

After the first partnership with Martin Cheney, his second partner was Robert Griffin, who also had a shop on St Paul Street, not far from the Cheney one in 1816. The Royal Ontario Museum has a mahogany banjo clock built between 1815 and 1820. BACK

DWIGHT & SAVAGE

George Savage was the third partner of Dwight, this time in a shop, also on St. Paul Street in 1818. BACK

JAMES A. DWIGHT & SON

It seems that James Dwight continued to run his business alone on St. Paul Street through the following years. But, in 1842, he opened a new shop with his son James Jr. on Notre-Dame Street in Montreal under the name James A. Dwight & Son, until 1845-1846, the approximative date of his death. BACK

DWIGHT & TWISS

He also had a brief association in 1821 with one of the Twiss Brothers, Austin, when he stayed in Canada. BACK

(E. A.) EAVES

Eaves was a watch and clockmaker in Montreal, Quebec, from 1875-1900. BACK

EGGAR AND COMPANY

Eggar and Co. was a watch and clockmaker in Montreal, Quebec, in 1885. BACK

(P. W.) ELLIS & CO. (ELLIS BROS. LIMITED)

Phillip and Matthew Cain Ellis (1856-1929), twin brothers, nephews of James E. Ellis, a silversmith from Toronto from 1858 to 1871, and having a company named J. E. Ellis & CO. from 1871 to 1901 created in 1872 P. W. Ellis & Co., a jewel and silverware manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer. Their headquarter was in Toronto, on Wellington Street East, and a factory on Front Street East. They published catalogs for the public, who could buy by mail order. The 1915-1916 catalog (146 pages) archive is available online. There is a section on watches (p. 4 to 49) and clocks (p. 50 to 52), mostly Waterbury US-made. They also published from time to time a yearly Gift Book, like this one from 1927-1928, probably the last once, under the name Ellis Bros. Limited on Yonge Street Toronto. Maybe the name was one of the retail stores. I saw the name “Toronto” on one of my Canadian clocks (ID275) equipped with a movement Made in Paris, France, from Duverdry & Bloquel with their famous lion trademark engraved on the movement. In 1928, the wholesale and manufacturing business folded. The retail store acquired by Birks continued under the name Birks Ellis Ryrie, but soon it became Birks with its famous blue box, which became emblematic of the mark. BACK

ERGO INDUSTRIES LTD

Ergo Industries Ltd was created in Markam, Ontario, in 1966. It is essentially an importer of made-in-China clocks by companies such as Minhou Dayang Arts and Crafts, Zhangzhou Fortune Clock Watch, DITI International, Zhangzhou Tongyuan Electronic, Xiamen Newstep Import and Export, J Concepts Industrial (Alarm Clocks), Ningbo Honesty Electric Technical Co., and Fuzhou Swell Electronic (Digital Clocks) (Ref.: Matchory.com). Ergo is probably closed since their website domain is for sale. BACK

(BENJAMIN) ETTER -► ETTER AND TIDMARSH -► ETTER AND HOSTERMAN -► B. ETTER & HOSTERMAN

Benjamin Etter (1763-1827) is the younger brother of Peter. He did his apprenticeship as a clockmaker at his brother’s shop, working there from 1780 to 1785. He also learned to be a silversmith. When Peter left for New Brunswick, Benjamin took over Peter’s Fort Cumberland shop. He moved it several times and, for a brief moment, was in partnership with James Tidmarsh under the name of Etter and Tidmarsh until 1803. From 1806 until his retirement in 1813, he was in business with his son-in-law, Thomas Hosterman. In 1813, he turned over his business to his son Benjamin B. who maintained the association with Hosterman, until 1815, under the name B. Etter & Osterman. Benjamin Etter had several apprentices, among them his sons. He was finally a successful watch and clockmaker and jeweler. BACK

(PETER) ETTER’S JEWELLERY STORE

The Etter family was from Bern in Switzerland. The father, Peter Sr. (1715-1794), emigrated to the U.S.A., at Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1737, where his two sons were born. After the American Revolution, Peter’s family established themselves in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as United Empire Loyalists. Peter Etter (c. 1755-1798) arrived in Halifax with the British Army in 1776. He left the Army and opened a clockmaker and jeweler business in 1778 in Halifax. In 1781, he registered his commerce as Peter Etter’s Jewellery Store. He built and sold jewels and watches. In 1787, he left Halifax for Fort Cumberland, New Brunswick, where he built the movement with only one hand for a tall case clock made for William Chapman. He died in 1798, drowned in the sinking of a boat traveling to Boston. BACK

FAIRBANKS AND CO.

Whitcomb Fairbanks (1810-1877) was a clock merchant from Saint John, New Brunswick, from 1840 to 1877. His clocks had a distinct design and were built locally: a high rectangular case surmounted by molding, with a base of a few inches high (10 to 12 cm), a semi-column on each side of a two-section door, one for the dial and the other for a tablet with a reversed picture. The movements were from Waterbury Clock Co. each clock had a label, printed locally, with Fairbanks’s name, attesting that it was an original Canadian-made clock, like this one from The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(HOWARD) FELT

Howard Felt (1860-1949) was born in Oshawa, Ontario. He is known to have obtained a patent for “testing and adjusting a watch balance (no 494919, 04 April 1893)” ( Varkaris & Connell, 1993 ). He had a jewelry and clock store in Oshawa from 1886 to 1892. BACK

(HOWARD AND EVERETT) FELT

Everett Felt (1859-1900) became a partner in 1892 in his brother Howard’s store in Oshawa. At Everett’s death in 1900, Howard bought his brother’s share and managed the shop alone until 1935. BACK

(HOWARD AND NEIL) FELT

In 1935, Neil Felt (1900-1961) became his father’s partner Howard until he died in 1949. Neil took over the business until 1962, when it closed down. BACK

(R. B.) FIELD & CO.

Rodney Burt Field (1809-1884) was an American from New England who moved to Leeds County in 1833. Based in Brockville, Upper Canada, he sold American clocks with a wood movement for three years under his brand with “Brockville” added labels, like this clock from The Canadian Clock Museum. He probably spent more time living and working in the United States than in Canada, where after 1840, he would have sold brass movement clocks. BACK

(JEAN-BAPTISTE) FILIAU dit DUBOIS

The Dubois story (?-1770), narrated by Varkaris & Connell (1993), is fascinating. I will try a résumé. Dubois was born in Quebec city somewhere in 1695. When he was young, he caught smallpox during the 1702 epidemic in Quebec City, where 200-300 people died. All the schools were closed. Dubois did not receive a formal education. He learned craftmanship under Jean-Dauphin, master carpenter and sculptor. He went to Montreal to work for wealthy patrons. But he was not capable of repairing their clocks. So he returned to Quebec city to work under Pierre-Henri Solo, with whom he learned to master horology. Back in Montreal, he could repair all types of watches and clocks presented to him. He also developed and built his clocks, creating the necessary tools. Benjamin Sulte, the famous Canadian journalist and author, wrote in The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, vol. IX, Montreal, July 1880: “A few years before the conquest, there was a Canadian named Dubois, a carpenter by trade residing in Montreal. (…) Dubois having been asked on several occasions to repair and regulate timepieces belonging to people who had procured them from France, he readily perceived that he could understand their mechanism, and he soon went into that business on a pretty large scale. His name became famous all around the island, and his customers increased considerably. Most of the tools required for the art he had thus adopted were not to be obtained in Canada, but his imaginative power was great, and he made them himself without much trouble. It is said that he even invented new models for clocks, and introduced many clever improvements which were looked upon in those days as really marvelous.” But, at the time, he could not survive only by repairing and building clocks. He pursued his trade as a cabinetmaker. He took under his wings Louis Foureur dit Champagne. Being “horologeur” (horologist) in Montreal under the French regime (1730-1760) was difficult. At the end of the French regime, after the British conquest, General Murray, appointed as the new governor in Montreal, passed a directive that prevented any person from establishing commerce or manufacturing that might negatively affect British commerce and trades. The consequence is that French Canadians could not develop their skills and craftsmanship during the next two generations, either as horologists or in any other form of art and techniques. Dubois died in 1770. BACK

(SIR SANDFORD) FLEMING

Born in Scotland, Sir Fleming (1827-1915) was an engineer and inventor. He emigrated to Canada in 1845. He is recognized as having invented the Standard Time and Time Zones. For more details, see Wikipedia. BACK

(W. S.) FLETCHER: Pictou, N. S.

In the 1840s, William S. Fletcher had a shop in Pictou, Nova Scotia, where he announced that he was selling and repairing watches, clocks, and jewels. BACK

(W.S.) FLETCHER, CHARLOTTETOWN, P. E. I.

At the end of 1851, William S. Fletcher moved to Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, where he continued the same business. He sold complete clocks imported from England under his name and movements. BACK

(S.) FLOWER AND SON

S. Flower and Son was a watch and clockmaker firm in Clinton, Ontario, in 1880. BACK

(J. L.) FORTIER ET COMPAGNIE (J. L. FORTIER AND COMPANY)

J. L. Fortier and Co. was a clock and watchmaker firm in Montreal, Quebec, in 1885. BACK

FOUCHER, FILS ET CIE (FOUCHER SON AND COMPANY)

Foucher, Son, and Co. was a clock and watchmaker firm in Montreal, Quebec, from 1890 to 1895.BACK

(LOUIS) FOUREUR dit CHAMPAGNE

Louis Champagne (1720-1789) did his cabinet and clockmaker apprenticeships with Jean-Baptiste Filiau dit Dubois. But he wanted to surpass his master. He secretly studied carefully French clock movements and began to create its clocks. They were very complex clocks. Benjamin Sulte, the famous Canadian journalist and author, wrote in The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, vol. IX, Montreal, July 1880: “Another Canadian called Champagne, also a carpenter of Montreal, closely followed Dubois’ steps. His remarkable skill often attracted the attention of men of the high class. He seems to have been gifted with indomitable energy. One day, M. Brassier, a priest of the St. Sulpice Congregation, described some of the beautiful clocks he had seen while living in France before 1745, especially those ornamented with carillons sounding the hours and other fractions of time. Champagne dreamed over this and finally set to work. The result was an elaborate and astonishing mechanism to which the whole of Montreal paid a tribute of admiration ( See Le Spectateur Montreal 16th Sept 1813). Champagne died about the year 1790. BACK

(W. C.) FOX AND COMPANY

W. C. Fox and Co. was a watch and clock firm established in Toronto, Ontario, in 1879-1880. BACK

(CHARLES) GEDDES

Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of a watchmaker, Charles Geddes (1750-1807), did his apprenticeship in clock and watchmaking with his uncle in London, England. In 1773, he emigrated to Boston, U. S. A., where he opened a shop. At the same time, he joined the Royal North British Volunteers and followed them to New York in 1776, where he opened another shop. In 1783, this Loyalist emigrated to Canada, where he obtained a concession in Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, but chose to establish a shop in Halifax. He markets himself as a former London and New York jeweler and watches and clockmaker, hoping to get into the business of military personnel and citizens of Halifax and the province. BACK

(JOHN) GEDDIE

Born in Scotland, John Geddie (1778-1843) did his watch and clockmaking apprenticeship in Scotland and built his first tall clocks in his shop. In 1817, he emigrated to Pictou, Nova Scotia, where he stayed until his death in 1843. When he arrived in Pictou, he built tall clocks and lived from his art despite challenging conditions. Most of them were built locally in mahogany wood, with English-style movements he probably designed and built. BACK

(GORDON) GILCHRIST

Born in Scotland, Gordon Gilchrist (1760-1846) was a carpenter and cabinetmaker at St Andrews, New Brunswick, from 1819 to 1835. He built many Regency-style furniture. He also built a tall clock dated 1822. Varkaris & Connell (1993) wrote that it is in the New Brunswick Museum, but there is no trace of that clock on the Museum site. BACK

GIROTTI SCULPTURED ART

The Girotti family of St Catherines, Ontario, was in business from 1964 to 1979. They made 3D models on wooden panels or molded polymer clocks. In 1971, it cataloged about fifteen panels with battery clocks. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(JACQUES) GOSSELIN

Jacques Gosselin would have been a clockmaker in Quebec City in 1758. BACK

(WILLIAM C.) GOSSIP

Born in England, he came to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1822. He is known for being the horologist who maintained the Halifax Town Clock. He also sold a few clocks with his name on the dial. BACK

(JAMES) GRANT (Quebec)

James Grant was a silversmith and clockmaker in Quebec city, c. 1780, during the British Regime. BACK

(JAMES) GRANT (Montreal)

James Grant moved to Montreal, Lower Canada, between 1792 through 1799 after many years in Quebec City. One of his clocks, a bracket in the pure English style, is at the Royal Ontario Museum. BACK

HACKSTAFF

Hackstaff from Dundas, Ontario, was the printer of the Horace Burr and Company clock labels. BACK

HAGGARTY AND COMPANY

Haggarty and Co. was a clock and watchmaker firm in Windsor, Ontario, in 1871. BACK

(JAMES) HANNA

James Hanna (c. 1737-1807) came from Ireland. He was established in Quebec at the beginning of the 1760s. He opened a watch, clock, jewels store, and a shop business around 1763. The commerce moved several times during its 40-year existence, but it was successful. Until 1807, James will have sold many watches, clocks, and gold and silver objects. He built very high-quality tall case clocks. here is an example from the collection of the Musée de la civilisation du Québec. Even if someone found the engraved name of James Hanna on one of these clocks, specialists are persuaded that there are of British origin because James traveled many times to England. BACK

(JAMES GODFREY) HANNA

James Godfrey (1788-1851) is the son of James. In 1803, at the age of 15, he began to work at his father’s shop. He took over the business in 1807, at his father’s death. He continued to import watches and clocks from England to sell them at the shop. He also built tall case clocks with British movements and put his name on the dial. The commerce went bankrupt in 1818. BACK

(GEORGE) HARDY

George Hardy (1783-1873) was a Scottish installed in Niagara, Upper Canada, where he had a watch and clockmaking shop from 1823 to 1827. He also had a shop in Kingston, Ontario, from 1829 to 1864. A few clocks from this period had been retrieved with his name on the dial. BACK

HARPER BROTHERS -> W. N. AND A. HARPER

The Harper Brothers were clock and watchmakers in Chatham, New Brunswick, from 1868 to 1871. In 1880, A. Harper was the sole owner of the firm. And from 1885 to 1900, W. N. Harper became the sole owner. BACK

HENTSCHEL CLOCK

Created in Waterloo, Ontario, in 1890, Hentschel Clock built high-quality handmade grandfather clock cases in many styles, from traditional to contemporary. Hermle German-made weight movements with chimes (Whittington, Westminster, St. Michael) and a lyre pendulum were installed in them. BACK

(GEORGE) HESS

George Hess (1838-1891) was born in Würtemburg, Germany. He learned clock and watchmaking in Switzerland. In 1856, he came to Canada by boat via New York and moved to Zurich, Ontario. He settled in Hay Township, Huron County, Canada West, where he worked as a carpenter earning enough money to return to Switzerland to purchase tools for his clock and watchmaking shop. But he lost most of his equipment as the boat capsized in New York harbor. Nevertheless, in 1870, he finally opened his shop in Zurich, Canada West. In 1880, he began constructing tower clocks and became interested in telegraphy and electric battery clocks. He made several public clocks for 25 years. He obtained two patents, one in 1888 (no 30429 – improvements of tower clocks) and one in 1889 (no 32485 – improvements of electric clocks). A tall case clock with his name and the year 1888 belongs to a collector. BACK

(LES) HORLOGES DE BEAUCE

Les Horloges de Beauce is a Quebec company established in St-Georges de Beauce in 1981. The company has created several clock models, the older ones have mechanical movements, but those dating back to the 2000s have battery quartz mechanisms. The last known catalog dates back to 2008. In the early 2000s, the company was in financial difficulty. Around 2002, a former employee bought the company’s assets, registered it, and tried to continue operations at his home in St-Julien en Beauce. He has a website that seems more or less active. He seems to respond to requests for information and probably sells spare parts for clocks still in use. BACK

(H.) HUNT & CO.

Hiram Hunt was an American who sold OG 30-hour weight clocks made in New England, U. S. A., between 1841 and 1845, in the St. Stephen region, New Brunswick, with a label with his name as Wholesaler and Retailer with St. Stephens, misspelled with an “s” at the end. BACK

(WILLIAM) HUTCHINSON -► W. & G. HUTCHINSON

William Hutchinson (1794-1863) was born in Ireland, where he learned clockmaking under his father. In 1819, he was sailing with his wife to Philadelphia, U.S.A., but the boat was wrecked in St. John, New Brunswick, so they settled there. He opened a shop on Prince William Street. In 1820, George Hutchison (c. 1774-1877), the oldest brother of William, decided to come to St. John with his wife, Mary. He then formed a partnership with George under the name W. & G . Hutchinson. They imported movements from England, installed them in cases (mostly tall cases) made by local cabinetmakers, and sold them in their shop. In 1834, George left the partnership. BACK

(WILLIAM) HUTCHINSON

William Hutchinson will continue his commerce at the departure of George Hutchinson. His nephew George Jr joined him in 1846. During this period, William had the contract to maintain the clocks of the cities of St. John. In his retirement, he passed the responsibilities to his sons. BACK

(GEORGE) HUTCHINSON

After the partnership with his brother, George Hutchinson (c. 1774-1877) opened his own business on Dock Street in St. John in 1834 that he kept for twenty years. BACK

G. & G. HUTCHINSON

At his father’s retirement in 1860, George Jr. continued the business on Prince William Street in St. John, New Brunswick, joined by his son, Daniel L., in 1874. But the Great Fire of St. John destroyed their commerce on June 20, 1877. After the fire, they opened a new wholesale and retail jewel business that lasted until 1883. During this period, George Jr. was responsible for a Time Ball newly installed on Fort Howe Hill as director of the observatory. The clock changes place a few times. In 1880, following the Great Fire of 1877, it was renewed and installed on the north tower of the new customs building in the port of St. John. Daniel became the observatory’s director at his father’s death in 1891. BACK

JACKSON AND BUHL

Clock and watchmakers in St. Thomas, Ontario, in 1880. BACK

(NAPOLÉON) JALBERT

Napoléon Jalbert was a jeweler and clockmaker from Montreal, Quebec, from 1884 to 1918. He had a shop on Notre-Dame St. until 1894, then on St Hubert Street. Two tall case clocks are known at his name with Montreal engraved on the dial. The movements were of British origin. BACK

(N. AND J.) JILLARD -► JILLARD BROTHERS

The Jillard brothers were watch and clockmakers established at Harbour Grace, Newfoundland, under N. and J. Jillard in 1868, then Jillard Brothers in 1875. BACK

(JOHN) JURY & FAMILY

John Jury was probably the first watch and clockmaker on Prince Edward Island. He opened a store in Charlottetown in 1813 that was in business for 90 years. Of course, the store occupied several locations during that time, but always in Charlottetown. Several members of the Jury family managed it, among them the son John A. BACK

KENT BROTHERS

Ambrose and Benjamin Kent opened a jewelry, watch, and clock store on Young Street in Toronto, Ontario, in 1869. They remained open for 80 years. Hung over their store door, a public clock announced, “KENT BROS – INDIAN CLOCK.” A figure was striking a bell each hour of the day. The Kent Brothers employed two famous Canadian clockmakers, H. R. Playtner and Edward Beeton. BACK

KERCO JEWELLERY LTD

Little is known of this jewelry store based in Montreal, Quebec, registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office as working in the domain of watches, clocks, movements, and cases from 1935 to 1949. BACK

(PORTER) KIMBALL

Porter Kimball sold clocks near the American Vermont frontier in Stanstead, Lower Canada, c. 1830. These were Transition clocks and pillar-and-splat that had a label with his name as manufacturer and seller. An example of these belongs to the collection of the Musée de la civilisation du Québec. BACK

KINNEHAN BROTHERS

Watch and clockmakers firm in West Farnham, Quebec, in 1875. BACK

(JOHN N.) KLINE

John Nicholas Kline (Klein) (1791-1856) was born in Hanover, Germany. He emigrated to the state of Pennsylvania, U. S. A., around 1820. But he emigrated to Canada, where he bought a concession in Vaughan Township, York County, Upper Canada, at the end of the 1820s. It seems that he provided wood movements to Reuben Burr, which he imported from the U. S. A. BACK

(MICHEL) LAMONTAGNE

Michel Lamontagne had a shop in Quebec, Lower Canada, from 1833 to 1865. He sold jewels, silverware, and probably a few tall case clocks with his name on the dial. BACK

(BENJAMIN H.) LECHTER

Benjamin Lechter from Montreal, Quebec, registered in 1948 with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, the POPEYE watch brand in use since 1945. BACK

(THOMAS) LEES SR.

Thomas Lee Sr. (1841-1936), born in Hamilton, Ontario, established a jewelry and manufacture business and sold watches and clocks in Hamilton in 1861. He was of Scottish descent by his baker father, who emigrated to Canada. Thomas had begun his apprenticeship with a clockmaker on John Street in Hamilton who was too poor to pay for him as an employee. He then gave him his business as payment. After a few years, he moved to James Street North, where he stayed until 1906. His last known address was 17-19 King Street West, where he remained until 1974. He sold clocks made for him in France or the United States, probably also Canadian clocks. Thomas Lee installed most of the tower clocks in the city of Hamilton. George (1866-1948) and Thomas Jr (1874-1951), sons of Thomas Sr., were trained as clockmakers by their father. BACK

(GEORGE & THOMAS Jr) LEES

In 1920, the Lees’ King Street West commerce in Hamilton was transmitted to George and Thomas Jr, but George had to retire due to illness in 1947 and died the following year. BACK

(THOMAS JOHN) LEES & RALPH WILKENSON LEES

In 1947, the sequel was provided by Thomas John, son of Thomas Jr, and his cousin Ralph Wilkenson Lees. When Ralph died in 1957, Thomas John continued until 1974. BACK

(THOMAS JOHN) LEES

In 1967, Thomas John Lees and his brother James Richard inherited the father’s business on Hamilton’s King Street. But Thomas John had to manage the commerce alone because Richard became a real estate agent. In 1974, the commerce closed because the new owner of the King Street building decided to demolish it. Still, the business founded by George Lees lasted 113 years, and four generations of Lees have assumed ownership. BACK

(JULIEN-PIERRE) LE GODAIS

In the late 1920s, Julien-Pierre Le Godais had shops in Brooklyn, New York, and Toronto, Ontario. He made watches, watch cases, clock movements, and sundials. He was registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademarks Office in 1928 and 1929. His trademark was a rectangle adorned with two poppies on each side and divided into two parts by a horizontal line where “NAMES IN” was written at the top and “BLOSSOMS” at the bottom. BACK

(JOHN K.) LEMP

John K. Lemp (c.1860-?) was the son of German immigrants living in Tavistock, Ontario, where he was born. He was a carpenter, but he built some pretty monumental cases of tall-case clocks, one of which had been installed at the Queen Hotel in Stratford, Ontario. He is said to have worked until 1937 in a machine shop he owned. BACK

(JOHN) LESLIE

John Leslie (1813-1895), born in Scotland, was a clockmaker in Bytown, Ontario. He had a shop in 1848. He imported clocks from France and the United States. One of these would be at the Laurier Museum in Ottawa. One of his sons, born in Canada, took over the business in the early 1890s, but it closed down around 1900.  BACK

(SAUNDERS) LORIE AND COMPANY LTD

This Jewellery and watch store in Toronto, Ontario, involved in watches, watch movements, dials, watch cases, and jewelry of all kinds and precious and semi-precious metals, was registered in 1926 in Canada and the U.S. Patent and Trademarks Office in 1946. Registration was renewed in Canada in 1976 but was dropped on May 28, 1993, due to lack of renewal. Its current owner would be Lois R. Orkin of Toronto. It seems that this firm put in watch cases in his name movements made in Switzerland. BACK

(JOHN) LUMSDEN

John Lumsden (?-1802), a clockmaker from Montreal, Lower Canada, around 1795 until about 1804, built tall case clocks that bear his name. Three of these remain (Varkaris-Connell, 1993). One made of pine with an English movement is part of the Royal Ontario Museum collection. BACK

MAC ALPINE FURNITURE

Established in 1984 in St. George, Ontario, by John MacAlpine, this company built 13 different grandfather clocks with German-made Hermle movements, chimes, and lyre pendulum. He sells to the public and built grandfather clock cases for Hentschel and Murray Clock Craft Ltd. The owner describes his business here: “When I was about ten years old on a family trip along St. John River in New Brunswick, we stopped at a small family business called The Loyalist Clock Company. Ever since then, I have been fascinated by grandfather clocks. I sold my first clock when I was 16 at a local flea market. Several years later, while my parents were on holiday, I opened my first store in St.George in the summer of 1984, selling grandfather clocks. Since then, they have remained a major part of my business. I have not only sold direct to the public, but for the last 20 years, I have also built small runs of grandfather clocks for Hentschels and clock kits for Murray Clock Craft Ltd. Our clocks are handcrafted from solid hardwoods, including oak, cherry, maple, walnut, and others on request.” (Mac Alpine Furniture website) BACK

MARATHON WATCH

The Wein brothers founded a watch manufacturing company called Weinsturm Watch in 1904, later called Wein Brothers. In 1939, one of the brothers, Morris Wein, created the Marathon Watch in Montreal. The company owes much of its success because, in 1941, it became a dedicated supplier to the Allied Forces for all kinds of time, temperature, and distance measurement devices, including binoculars with night vision, etc. It also provides some departments in Canada and Ontario, the RCMP, and the U.S. Government. Of course, all Marathon Watch products are military-grade. Manufacturing is done in Switzerland. The company still exists and also sells to the general public. BACK

(NATHAN) MARKS

Nathan Marks (1831-1909), whose father was German and mother English, came to Canada in 1874. He briefly stayed in Quebec City, but in 1875, he opened a shop in Ottawa, Ontario. He had a good inventory of clocks in store, including several from the Hamilton Clock Co. manufactured from 1876 to 1880, some for him. In 1881, he sold to Rosenthal and Sons and returned to his family in Europe. BACK

MARKS & E. COCHENTHALER

Nathan Marks (1831-1909) had a shop in Ottawa, Ontario, sold to Rosenthal and Sons in 1881. He then returned to his family in Europe. He returned to Ottawa in 1884 and founded wholesale jewelry and watch company with E. Cochenthaler. His son Abraham joined the company in 1888, and Nathan retired in 1890. BACK

(WARREN) MARRISON

Citizen of Inverary, Ontario, he worked at the Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, where he developed a quartz timekeeper in 1927. BACK

(RICHARD UPHAM) MARSTERS (Halifax)

According to the newspapers, Richard Upham Marsters (1787-1845) would be the first watchmaker to manufacture chronometers in North America. At 14, he was an apprentice with goldsmith David Page of Onslow, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, until 1817. Marsters then opened a workshop in Halifax, mainly to repair navigational instruments. The chronometers he had to repair all had the same defect. He went to England for a year to learn more, where he reportedly worked with Thomas Earnshaw (1749-1829) (Varkaris & Connell, 1993). On his return to Halifax, he announced that the chronometers he made were capable of “resisting the greatest vicissitudes of the climate.” In 1831 and 1832, he stayed in New York, where he perfected his art. BACK

RICHARD UPHAM MARSTERS (Falmouth)

Richard Upham Marsters (1787-1845) returned to Canada after a stay in England and New York to perfect his skills in developing chronometers. In 1834 he was found in Falmouth, Nova Scotia, where he had a workshop. Only one of the Marsters chronometers of that time, number 765, would remain. It is at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax. BACK

(JOHN) McCULLOCH

John McCulloch (1821-1875) came to Canada from Glasgow, Scotland, in 1837. He apprenticed with goldsmith Peter Norbeck. In 1844, he opened a shop on Granville Street in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he worked as a goldsmith and watchmaker from 1844 to 1875. BACK

(WILLIAM) McMASTER

William McMaster (1793-1854) came from Scotland to Quebec City, Lower Canada, in 1827, where he opened a clockmaking shop. He built and sold Quebec-style tall-case clocks equipped with English movements. BACK

(WILLIAM JR.) & THOMAS MCMASTER

William McMaster, upon his death, bequeathed his Quebec workshop to his wife and two sons, William Jr. and Thomas, who continued the business until about 1868. BACK

(JAMES GODFREY) MELICK

James Godfrey Melick (1802-1885) was a clockmaker in Saint John, New Brunswick. He opened a shop in 1824, which he maintained for 40 years. His clock production is probably not massive, as only one is in the New Brunswick Museum. It is a floor clock but much smaller than the usual floor clocks of the time. It is only 110 cm tall (43in.). Its movement is without ringing or chimes, and its dial is brass. BACK

(SAMUEL I.) MOYER

Samuel L. Moyer (1795-?) is a native of Pennsylvania. He was part of the migration movement to the Niagara Peninsula in the early 19th century. His father settled on a farm in Lincoln County, Canada West. Samuel L. signed one or more tall case clocks as a cabinetmaker around 1830. These were equipped with movements imported from England. One of these is housed at the Niagara On the Lake Museum. BACK

MURRAY CLOCK CRAFT LTD

William Murray established a clock and parts business in his Toronto home basement with his wife and his sister-in-law in 1969. In the early 1970s, he moved to a North York, Ontario, store on McNicoll Avenue. He also had in the 1980s, stores in the provinces of Quebec and Alberta. Due to economic difficulties, the company was bought in 1994 by Daniel Kesslering, a Swiss who had several stores called The Clock Gallery in shopping malls across Canada. Kesslering died in 2012, with his many stores but one in-home again. No one in the family was interested to take over the business, but a long-time employee, Arek Voscorian, did. BACK

(AREK’S) MURRAY CLOCKS INC.

Arek Voscorian, a former Murray Clock Craft Ltd employee, took over the Murray clock business but had to create a new company under Arek’s Murray Clocks Inc due to legalities. Arek bought the Murray Clock plans, stock of remaining parts, and tried to maintain the spirit of his old company by offering maintenance to the Murray clocks still in service, and selling clock kits, parts, and plans, to build clocks in the Murray style. It is still in business in Markham, Ontario. BACK

(A. AND A.) NEILSON

The Neilsons had a watch and clockmaking firm in Perth, Ontario, in 1885. BACK

(T. H.) NETTLETON

Nettleton was a watch and clockmaker in Collingwood, Ontario, in 1885. BACK

(A. S.) NEWBURY

Arkle S. Newbury and his partners Levi Beemer and Norris F. Birley imported clocks from the United States by boat through the Port of Hamilton. They were retailers of gold and silver watches and clocks. Beemer and Newbury had a store on Hughson Street in Hamilton in 1851. Levi Beemer had his clock shop from 1857 to 1865 and sold imported American clocks. In 1857, Newbury partnered with Birley as importers. From 1858 to 1861, they imported 207 boxes of clocks (Varkaris and Connell, 1993). In 1864, Newbury remained the sole importer of watches and clocks, which he sold in bulk, with Beemer and Birley leaving without a trace. BACK

NEWBURY and BEEMER

Arkle S. Newbury and Levi Beemer had a store on Hughson Street in Hamilton in 1851. This store remained open for only a few years since, in 1857, Newbury had only Birley as a partner, Beemer being retired at an undisclosed place. BACK

NEWBURY AND BIRLEY

Arkle S. Newbury joined Birley in 1857 as importers under Newbury & Birley. From 1858 to 1861, they imported 207 boxes of clocks (Varkaris and Connell, 1993). Birley’s trace was lost after 1864, with Newbury remaining alone until an indeterminate date. BACK

(THOMAS) NISBET

Thomas Nisbet (1776-1850) was born in Scotland. He learned from his father the trade of cabinetmaker. He married and had children. In 1813 he emigrated to Canada with his family and moved to Saint John, New Brunswick, where he opened a shop. He announced that he had received mahogany wood from Jamaica and offered his services to build and stuff furniture. He was considered the most important cabinetmaker in New Brunswick in the 19th century. He has built several pieces of furniture and clock cases that his brother-in-law William Hutchinson sold. BACK

(WILLIAM) NORTHGRAVES

The Northgraves family, for one hundred years, had watchmakers who settled across Canada from east to west. The father, William Northgraves (1764-1819), was born in Hull, England. Two of his sons emigrated to Lower Canada in 1818, William (1800-1864) and George (1803-1873). Around 1819, William opened a shop on Rue de la Fabrique in Quebec City. He regularly appears in the Quebec Gazette because he is looking for bilingual apprentices, advertising watches and 8-day clocks for sale and accessories, and also to say that he repairs watches and clocks. In 1825, he moved with his family to Montreal, where he opened a store on St. Paul Street and moved to Notre-Dame Street the following year. In 1829, he left Montreal to settle briefly in Brockville, Upper Canada, where he worked with his brother George. He opened a shop in Bytown in 1830, where he opened a shop to build watches and clocks. Finally, around 1839, he moved to Kingston and then retired to Belleville in 1843. Before he died in 1864, he sold his business to John O. Tucker. Two of his sons, William J. and Frederick, were clockmakers, one in Kingston, Ontario, and the other in Picton, Ontario, then Madoc, Canada West. BACK

(GEORGE) NORTHGRAVES

William Northgraves’s brother, also a clockmaker, came to Canada and settled in Brockville, Canada West, where he opened a workshop in 1832 that he held until 1851. BACK

(GEORGE) NORTHGRAVES AND SON

George Northgraves decided to move from Brockville to Perth, Canada West, where he opened a shop in 1852 under George Northgraves and Son. George and his son, William (1842-1908), sold watches, clocks, jewelry, silverware, etc., and repaired them. Later, in 1871, they sold musical instruments, gold and silver, and even glasses. When George died in 1873, William continued the business until 1906. George’s other son, George Denton (1843-1908), was also a clockmaker and spent his career in the West, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and Edmonton, Alberta. BACK

(C.A.) OLMSTED -► BIRKS

Charles Albert Olmsted (1867-1943) was born in Hull, Quebec. He apprenticed at jeweler Addison on Sparks Street in Ottawa, Ontario, until he opened his jewelry store on the same street in 1890. He sold quality clocks bearing his name, some imported from France, others from Canada. Note that he sold clocks made by Arthur Pequegnat with his name. He sold mantle clocks and many school wall clocks to institutions in the Ottawa and Gatineau region, Quebec. Around 1895, he had a partner in William G. Hurdman, a goldsmith, without much success. In 1903, Henry Birks bought his store and appointed Olmsted as manager until 1915. BACK

OLMSTED & SON -► OLSMSTED & OLSMTED -► OLMSTED’S

After the acquisition by Birks, Olmsted opened with his optometrist son a watch repair shop called Olmsted and Son, Olmsted and Olmsted, and in 1936 Olmsted’s. He worked there until he died in 1943. BACK

ORKNEY AND COMPANY

James Orkney (1760-1832) was a prolific Scottish clockmaker, jeweler, and silversmith who arrived in Quebec City, Lower Canada, where he opened and maintained a shop from 1786 to 1818. When he closed it, he had 25 tall case clocks (Varkaris & Connell, 1993). Many of the clocks he built still exist, some in the hands of collectors, others in museums, mostly very tall case clocks made in mahogany with three finials on top, equipped with English movements engraved with the names of their clockmakers. The Royal Ontario Museum has two clocks in its collection. The Museum History of Canada has another one. BACK

(JAMES R.) ORMOND AND COMPANY

Watch and clockmakers in Peterborough, Ontario, in 1871.BACK

(ROBERT) OSBORNE

Robert Osborne (1815-1874), a Scottish clockmaker, moved to Hamilton, Canada West, in 1851. He set up a shop there on James Street. He sold clocks imported from the United States, some from England, or English movements such as those owned by the Royal Ontario Museum. He also took two apprentices from Scotland under his wing, David Hauters and Joseph Kerr. BACK

PAGE BROTHERS

The Page brothers (or Pagé), Richard and Clement, had a jewelry store in Saint John, New Brunswick, listed in the city’s directory from 1860 to 1874. BACK

PAGE, SMALLEY AND FERGUSON

From 1877 to 1887, the Page brothers’ firm advertised itself as watch and clockmakers under Page, Smalley, and Ferguson. BACK

PAILLÉ ET BEAUVAIS

Paillé and Beauvais were watch and clockmakers in Saint-Jean, Quebec in 1875. BACK

(WILLIAM T.) PARSONS

William T. Parsons (1813-1902) was born in Newfoundland, as were his parents. He was a clockmaker and jeweler. He had a shop in St. John from 1846 until 1873. The circular clock of the former St. John Legislature was his, his name appearing on the dial with the year 1855. BACK

(J. M.) PATTERSON

J. M. Patterson imported American clocks and resold them in Toronto and Hamilton from 1850 to 1860. Some clocks with his label were found, like this one from The Canadian Clock Museum. The labels from two other clocks stated that one was made specifically for him by Birge, Peck, and Co., and the other by Seth Thomas. BACK

(R. W.) PATTERSON & CO.

R. W. Patterson was also a dealer of clocks manufactured by others, based in Toronto, Canada West, in the 19th century, with labels in his name or original labels. The sources of his clocks were American Birge, Peck and Co., Seth Thomas, and Forestville Manufacturing Co. BACK

(WILLIAM H.) PATTERSON

William H. Patterson (1828-?) was born in St. Andrews, New Brunswick. He was a watchmaker and jeweler in St. John, New Brunswick. He established a shop in the early 1850s, which he kept until the 19th century. He sold OG-type clocks probably manufactured in the United States by Chauncey Jerome of New Haven, Connecticut. He glued on top of the original label his own with his name and a photograph of the port of St. John. BACK

(JOSEPH) PETIT CLAIR

Joseph Petit Clair (?-1809) was born in Quebec City, Lower Canada, and remained there until 1797 and worked as a clockmaker. Later, he was found in Montreal in 1797, where he opened a clockmaking shop and even took an apprentice, Louis Baron, whom he housed and fed. Petit Clair built mostly tall-case clocks, mostly Chippendale style, with three finials on top. His signature appears on the dial with Montreal. BACK

PFAFF & HASS

Anthony Pfaff (?-1857) and Michael Hass (?-1850) sold several OG imported clocks in Vaughan Township, Canada West, on which they affixed their labels suggesting they had made them. Varkaris and Connell (1993) have identified four labels that show that they have sometimes sold clocks alone and others in partnership. Here is an example from The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(H. R.) PLAYTNER

Henry Richard Playtner (1864-1943) was born in Preston, Ontario. He began his career as a watchmaker at 15 when he became Edward Fox’s apprentice in Kincardine, Ontario, from 1880 until 1886. He later worked in Toronto for Robert Cuthbert (14 April to 11 May 1886), Kent Brothers (12 May 1886 to 24 September 1887), and John P. Mill 25 September 1887 to 17 May 1890). He met Edward Beeton at Kent Brothers, head of the technical staff in 1886 and consequently his boss. Beeton left Kent Brothers in 1889 to open his own business in Toronto with Playtner as a partner. They also planned to create the first watchmaking school in Canada during this period. (Reference: Varkaris & Connell, 1993). Click on Canadian Horological Institute to know more about it. BACK

PLUMMER & MITCHELL

William Lawrence Plummer (c. 1824-after 1890) was born in the United States. Watchmaker and cabinetmaker, he settled in Saint John, New Brunswick, in the 1850s. He sold clocks under his name and the combined name of a partner, Plummer and Mitchell. Mitchell had a shop not far from Plummer’s. Such tagged clocks were found: an OG mirror and a semi-column with an inverted tablet. Around 1864, Plummer left St. John for Fredericton, New Brunswick, and no longer appeared to be selling clocks. BACK

(JORDAN) POST

Jordan Post (1767-1845), born in Hebron, Connecticut, where he was reportedly apprenticed, settled in York, Upper Canada, in 1802. He competed for the title of the first watchmaker in Upper Canada with Elisha Purdy. But his work as a clockmaker is much more substantial not in the number of clocks produced but in quality and sophistication, whereas Purdy was, above all, a repairman. He was the first to make complete clocks, cases, and movements. He was also a successful real estate developer. BACK

(PETER) POULIN

Peter Poulin (1809-c.1875) of Quebec imported floor clocks from England, putting his name on them. It is possible that some of these clock cases were built in Quebec City. He had a shop on St. John’s Street in the 1850s. One of his sons, Peter E., is said to have been his apprentice as a clockmaker. The name of the shop was Peter Poulin and Son in 1880. BACK

(ELISHA) PURDY

Elisha Purdy arrived in Upper Canada in late 1799, ahead of Jordan Post, who arrived in 1802 as the first watchmaker in Upper Canada. He has settled briefly in Niagara, then in York, as a repairman of clocks, watches, and silver or gold objects. BACK

(JAMES) RADFORD

James Radford (c.1834-c.1880), born in Newfoundland, had a clockmaking shop in Ottawa, Ontario, beginning in the 1860s. He had two partners, William Young until about 1875, then Denis Goyer for a short time because he remained alone in his shop until his death. BACK

(EDWARD) REES

Edward Rees registered the MARMET brand with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in 1947. His watch and clock business, based in Westmount, Ontario, had been in business since 1938. We lost track of it. BACK

(W. G.) ROSS AND COMPANY

Ross was active in Halifax, Nova Scotia as a clockmaker from 1876 to 1878. He created then W. G. Ross and Co. in existence until 1881. BACK

(MICHEL) ROUSSEAU

Son of American immigrants, Michel Rousseau (1805-1853) was a cabinetmaker from Lotbinière, Lower Canada. He is said to have built, probably with other Quebec cabinetmakers, several cases of floor clocks in a style that experts describe as the Quebec style. The wooden movements were, it seems, of American origin. The cases were usually pine, painted to mimic the wood’s veins. Others were made of mahogany and equipped with better English movements. Retailers in Quebec City and Montreal sold the clocks. Varkaris and Connell (1993) describe the style of the cases in this way: “The rectangular base is decorated with molding and is scalloped at the bottom. The tapered midsection has two-quarter columns set into the front corners and a tapered door. The hood has free-standing columns surmounted by a curved crest, carved to resemble leaves or fern fronds. Three brass finials dominate the crest. This clock has a hinged door in front of the dial and two small side windows. BACK

(JOHN E.) SANCTON -► JOHN E. SANCTON & SON

John E. Sancton (1833-?), a clockmaker from Bridgetown, Nova Scotia, had a shop in 1864. His son joined him around 1900, and the name changed to John E. Sancton & Son.BACK

(L. S.) SAUNDERS AND COMPANY -► L. S. & C. L. SAUNDERS

Founded in Barrie, Ontario, this company manufactured clocks and watches from 1875 to 1880, when the name changed to L. S. & C. L. Saunders. We lost the trace of the company. BACK

(GEORGE) SAVAGE -► DWIGHT & SAVAGE

George Savage (1767-1845) is a famous clockmaker born in England. Indeed, in 1808, while in London, he invented a lever escapement called the “Savage two-pin,” i.e., “Two-ankle escape,” for which he obtained a patent (No. 3102). He emigrated to Montreal, Lower Canada, in 1818 and opened a shop with J. A. Dwight under Dwight & Savage, which his son Joseph continued to operate in 1826. BACK

(G.) SAVAGE & SON

After his partnership with Dwight, George Savage, in 1819, opened his shop with his son Joseph (c. 1799-1859), on the corner of St. Pierre and Notre-Dame streets, under the name G. Savage and Son. The shop moved to St. Paul Street in 1826 and operated under Joseph’s sole direction until 1845. In the 1830s and 1840s, Savage clocks, popular with collectors, were named after him, and the city was either London or Montreal. They are usually imported from England because George had a partner in England, George Jr. Savage. In 1835, John Wood joined George Savage. The business went so well that he opened another shop on Notre Dame Street, where Wood was the manager. But he left in 1839 to open his shop. William Learmont replaced him until 1841. George Savage died in 1845. BACK

(JOSEPH) SAVAGE AND LYMAN -► SAVAGE, LYMAN & CO.

George’s son, Joseph Savage, continued to ensure the success of the Notre Dame Street store in Montreal. In 1851, he agreed to a partnership with Colonel Theodore Lyman (1818-1901), Joseph’s brother-in-law, who married his sister Abigail in 1829. The business was then named Savage and Lyman, wholesale and retail importers of clocks, watches, jewelry, and silverware. In 1856, the business moved near the Montreal Cathedral and remained there until 1872. The business was then called Savage, Lyman, and Co. In 1869, Henry Birks became a partner, and in 1878, Henry Birks was created. BACK

(DAVID) SAVAGE: Montreal

David Savage (c. 1803-1807-1857) is George Savage’s son. He emigrated to Canada with his father in 1818. He became a clockmaker and jeweler. Although he spent time in London, England, in the 1830s, he had a shop in Montreal in 1847 which he sold to John Wood and finally went bankrupt in 1850.BACK

(DAVID) SAVAGE: GUELPH

In the meantime, David Savage moved to Guelph, Ontario. He opened another shop in 1848 on Wyndham Street, selling American clocks by sticking his label over the original. He also repaired watches and clocks. The Canadian Clock Museum has a clock from this era. David died in 1857. BACK

(BENJAMIN) SAVAGE -► WATCH, CLOCK, JEWELLERY AND SPECTACLE HOUSE -► SAVAGE AND COMPANY

Benjamin Savage (1844-1914), son of David Savage, took over the Guelph’s shop at his father’s death in 1857. In 1885, it was named Watch, Clock, Jewellery, and Spectacle House. In 1890, the firm returned to Savage and Company, relocated to Paisley Street, and remained in operation until 1930. In 1939, it was owned by Robert E. Barber and Evan D. Brill. BACK

(GEORGE) SAVAGE JR -► GEORGE SAVAGE AND COMPANY

George Savage Jr. (?-1851) was another son of George Savage Sr. of London and Montreal. He is, like his father, a clockmaker. In 1815, as we have seen, he was his father’s partner in George Savage and Son. The latter opened a store in Toronto in 1829, and George Jr. was its manager until he died in 1851. Watches, clocks, and jewelry are sold and repaired. There would be a few clocks left in the name of George Savage and Company, Toronto. BACK

SAVARD ET FRÈRES

The Savard Brothers were clock and watchmakers in Quebec City in 1857. BACK

SAVARD ET COMPAGNIE

In 1885, the Savard Brothers named their Quebec firm Savard and Company. We don’t know how long it lasted. BACK

(GUSTAVE) SEIFERT

Gustave Seifert (1813-1909), born in Prussia, opened a clock shop in Quebec City in 1857 at 22 Couillard St. He also made jewels and silverware. His name appears on “Bracket” type clocks, very ornate and high quality with ringing on bells. Their movements were English. BACK

(GUSTAVE) SEIFERT : EUROPEAN BAZAR

In 1872, his shop was founded on Rue de la Fabrique in Quebec City under European Bazaar. His sons Albert E. and G. Otto work there. BACK

SEIFERT G. & SONS INC.

The Quebec city European Bazar was incorporated in 1899 as Seifert G. and Sons Inc. His other son, Harold L., joined in 1907. In 1920, the third generation of Seifert ran the business. In 1930, it was bought by Henry Birks, who made it his first store in Quebec City, which was still run by the Seifert’s until 1973. BACK

(CHARLES) SEWELL

Charles Sewell (?-1849) was a goldsmith and clockmaker in York (renamed Toronto in 1834), Canada West, from 1831 to 1849. Tall case clocks were found with his name on the dial and several pieces of silverware. In 1843, he imported the largest cargo of brass clocks (54) to enter through the Port of Toronto. BACK

SHONBECK CLOCK COMPANY

During the 1930s, Shoenbeck Clock Co. was a Hamilton, Ontario, advertising and office clocks manufacturer with electric American imported movements. BACK

SMITH BROTHERS

Clock and watchmakers in Kingston, Ontario, from 1880 to 1900. BACK

(DAVID) SMITH: GODMANCHESTER

David Smith (c. 1800–?) came from Ireland with his wife in the 1820s and settled in Godmanchester, Upper Canada. He was a farmer selling sideline American OG clocks with his label, active in 1838 and a few years later. BACK

(DAVID) SMITH: ST. JOHN, N. B.

Another David Smith, this one from St. John, New Brunswick, sold in the 1830s “American OG clocks using a label which claimed: “Made and sold by David Smith at his cheap Clock Manufactory, St. Johns, Lower Canada” (Connell, 1999). BACK

(F. W.) SMITH -► F. W. SMITH AND BROTHERS

F. W. Smith was a clockmaker in Napanee, Ontario. In 1880, he was joined by his brothers and created F. W. Smith and Brothers. They were in business from 1885 to 1890. BACK

(JERRY) SMITH

Jerry Smith (1873-1953) of Richmond Hill, Ontario, studied under H. R. Playtner at the Canadian Horological Institute in Toronto. In 1899, he made a pocket watch bearing his name, the name of the Institute, and No. 18. It also developed a high-precision regulator and two monumental floor clocks with 8-day movement and Westminster chime. In 1899, after graduation, he set up a clockmaking workshop in Brantford, Ontario, and moved to Richmond Hill, Ontario, in 1902. He spent the rest of his life working as a clockmaker in his shop. BACK

(PIERRE-HENRI) SOLO OR HENRI SOLON

Solo is considered the first watch and clockmaker in Nouvelle-France. His name with an “n” at the end appeared in a court judgment for unpaid rent in 1729 (Bergeron, 1979). He had a shop in Quebec City in 1729 and through the 1730s. He had Jean-Baptiste Filiau said Dubois as an apprentice. BACK

(S. J.) SOUTHWORTH

S. J. Southworth was a peddler of Seth Thomas standard clocks with a label to his name, in Leeds County, Canada West, from 1840 to 1870. Here is an example from The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(JUSTIN) SPAHN

Justin Spahn (1803-1856) was born in Switzerland in the city of La Chaux-de-Fonds. There, he was an apprentice goldsmith and watchmaker. He completed his training in Philadelphia in the United States in 1819. He emigrated to Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1823. There, he opened a watch, clock, and jewelry repair shop. In the 1840s, he had two apprentices, his nephew Andrew Macpherson, who took over the shop after Justin’s death from 1856 to 1861, and James White, one of the few New Brunswick-born and trained watch and clockmakers. BACK

(GEORGE) SPANENBERG AND BROTHER

Clocks and watchmakers of Belleville, Ontario, in 1895.BACK

(GEORGE) STEEL

George Steel was a peddler of wood movement Seth Thomas clocks with his name on them in the 1830s in Horton, Nova Scotia. He sold many of them. Some of his clocks are in museums. BACK

(CLARA) STEPHENSON

Clara Stephenson (1869-1941) was one of the few women interested in watch and clockmaking. She worked in her father’s shop, where she was quickly able to repair watches and clocks. She was offered a job in Toronto for the department store T. Eaton Co. where she was given a prominent workshop that attracted many customers. After a few years at Eaton‘s, she went to work at P. W. Ellis, a wholesaler in Toronto, not later than 1909. BACK

(A.) STEWART & SON

Established in Richmond, Quebec, A. Stewart & Son was a small company that manufactured clocks and watches in 1895. BACK

(WALTER) STONKUS & SON CLOCKS

Walther Stonkus, a Lithuanian, moved to Canada in 1927 and began making walnut clock cases in the early 1930s in Toronto, Ontario. He added movements imported from Germany and England, except during the Second World War when production was suspended. At the war’s end, he continued to produce cases but with birch until late in the 1950s. It continued to sell clocks imported from Germany until the mid-1960s. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(J. G.) TATE AND COMPANY

Watch and clockmakers in Peterboro, Ontario, in 1900. BACK

TAYLOR AND BARNARD

Watch and clockmakers in Whitby, Ontario, in 1875. BACK

(JOSEPH) TAYLOR AND COMPANY -► TAYLOR JEWELRY COMPANY

Joseph Taylor was a clock, watchmaker, and jeweler from Hamilton, Ontario, from 1869 to 1885. In 1890 he had a firm called Joseph Taylor and Company to manufacture watches and clocks, and in 1895 a jewelry store called Taylor Jewelry Company. He maintained both companies until 1900. BACK

THE ARTHUR PEQUEGNAT CLOCK CO.

Arthur Pequegnat (1851-1927) was born in Switzerland in 1851. His father and brothers made and repaired clocks there. In 1874, the entire Pequegnat family immigrated to Canada, settling in Berlin, Ontario, later named Kitchener, where they resumed their watchmaking skills. The brothers each opened jewelry and clockmaking workshops in various Ontario cities. Arthur Pequegnat, in his spare time, repairs and assembles bicycles in his back shop, but the bicycle market failed in 1904. Arthur decided to gradually convert his workshop to make clocks, cases, and movements. These follow the shapes of American clocks in vogue at the time. They are mostly made of oak, but on order, they are made of mahogany or walnut. After Arthur died in 1927, his sons Edmond and Marcel continued production until about 1940. The difficulty of finding bronze at the dawn of the Second World War forced them to close shop. Arthur Pequegnat clocks are highly sought after by collectors, and their value is high, sometimes too high for the most common types, such as the Brandon model school type. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

THE BLACK FOREST CLOCK CO.

Leopold and Sara Stossel founded this Toronto company in 1928. Whole clocks and movements were imported from Germany, England, and France. Some of the cases were manufactured at a plant in Kitchener, Ontario. Department stores and jewelry stores sold these clocks mostly. In 1941, it took the name Forestville Clock Co., not to be confused with the American company with the same name. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

THE CANADA CLOCK COMPANY

The Canada Clock Company, Canada’s first clockmaking company, was born in June 1872. Williams F. Collins and his brothers John F. and Edward of Whitby, Ontario, are founders. A two-story building had about 15 employees making movements and cases using appropriate machine tools. Movements and cases are in the style of what was done at the time in the United States. These clocks were sold throughout Ontario and Quebec. In 1875, the building occupied by the company in Whitby was destroyed by fire. For more information on Canada Clock Com. Ltd, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

THE HAMILTON CLOCK CO. -► THE CANADA CLOCK CO.

In 1876, following the fire at its Whitby factory, the company relocated to Hamilton, Ontario, and changed its name to The Hamilton Clock Co. The company was awarded a significant contract to manufacture 500 timer clocks for bank vaults, designed by a Hamilton locksmith and safe manufacturer. In 1880, it retook its original name. It finally closed its doors in 1884. For more information about The Canada Clock Co. and the Hamilton Clock Co., see Varkaris & Connell, 1986 (out of print), and The Canadian Clock Museum.
Varkaris and Connell (1993) report that a clock, very similar to those manufactured by The Canada Clock Co., was found with a label bearing The Dominion Clock Co. The clock instructions are an exact copy of the Waterbury Clock Co. label over which the Dominion label is pasted. Moreover, movement is a Waterbury first way in which steel pins rather than screws hold the plates. But the authors have not found any trace of this Dominion company. BACK

THE CANADIAN HOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE

Gary Fox, author of Canada’s Master Watchmaker, Henry Playtner, and the Canadian Horological Institute (2012), is the history specialist of the Canadian Horological Institute. BACK

THE CANADIAN NEON RAY CLOCK CO.

According to The Canadian Clock Museum, Canadian Neon-Ray C. Ltd. moved to Montreal around 1942 and was in business until 1965. Most of the clocks produced by it were equipped with electrical movements, but some sold in the countryside had an Arthur Pequegnat movement. BACK

THE EARLE CLOCK CO.

Reginald Heber Earle (1843-1921) founded this clock manufacture in Saint John, New Brunswick, in 1912, where oak cases were made with American movements. BACK

THE FLEET TIME COMPANY LIMITED

This Montreal clock manufacturer, not linked to an American company, was founded in 1936 and closed its doors in 1940, probably due to the Second World War: difficulty finding labor and especially movements due to the war effort in Europe. The movements were imported, probably from England or Germany, and installed in mantle cases. Very little is known about this company, and it is impossible to find catalogs. From the collection of The Canadian Clock Museum in Deep River, Ontario (3 clocks), and mine (six clocks, of which three are now in the Museum), we can conclude that Fleet only made “Mantle” clocks with wooden cases inspired more or less art-deco. As for the movements, they are Bim-Bam ringing, Westminster chime, or three-melody chime. BACK

THE FORESTVILLE CLOCK CO.

Forestville Clock Co. is a sequel to the Black Forest Clock Co. in Toronto, Ontario, from 1941 to 1982, not to be confused with the American company with the same name. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

THE LOYALIST CLOCK COMPANY

Small family business established in 1977 at Scheffield near Fredericton, New Brunswick. According to the Nova Scotia Registry of Joint Stock Companies, it was incorporated on the 5th June of 1978 as an Extra-Provincial Corporation with a registered address in Fredericton, New Brunswick, its president and director since November 1989, W. James Hamilton. The status of the company was revoked for non-payment the 30 June 1990. BACK

THE MONTREAL WATCH CASE CO.

Situated on 125 Vitré St. in Montreal, The Montreal Watch Case Co. produced gold watch cases and repaired watches from 1887 to 1909. BACK

THE PEQUEGNAT CLOCK COMPANY OF CANADA

Paul Pequegnat, a great-grandson of Arthur Pequegnat, decided to produce clocks based on Arthur’s original models, but with German Hermle movements, in Manotick, Ontario, from 1984 until he died in 1997. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

THE SNIDER CLOCKS CO. (1950-57) & THE SNIDER CLOCK MFG CO. (1957-1976)

This Canadian company, founded by Harry Snider in 1950, made clocks in a factory situated on 466 Bathurst St., Toronto, until 1967, when it moved to 12 Brant St. The company changed its name to “The Snider Clock Mfg. Co.” in 1957, and continued to manufacture clocks until 1976. The clocks made by Snider are very diverse in shape and can be associated with the novelty clocks movement. Their mechanical movements came from Ingraham Canadian Clock Company, and their electric movements were imported from Lanshire Co. of Chicago, Illinois. The Canadian Clock Museum has probably the most extensive collection of Snider clocks. BACK

THE TWISS BROTHERS

Austin, Benjamin, Joseph, Ira, Russell, born in Connecticut, U.S.A., at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th, came to Montreal, Canada, mainly from 1821 to 1851, while keeping a clock factory in Meriden, Connecticut. It seems that Austin was in Côte-des-Neiges, Montreal, in 1821. He had J. A. Dwight briefly as a partner. In 1825, Austin bought a building in Laprairie on the South shore of Montreal with Joseph, who had just arrived in Montreal. Austin died in 1826, leaving a widow and two children.
Ira came to Montreal in 1828 and married Austin’s widow. In 1830, Ira and Joseph sold the Laprairie establishment. Ira returned to Meriden in 1836 and operated a tavern from 1839 to 1843. He then became a prosperous landowner; he built a sawmill in Twiss Pond, Connecticut. Benjamin, who married a girl from Champlain, Quebec, seems to have shared his time between Montreal and Meriden from 1824 to 1830. Russell married an American girl in Montreal in 1834. Ira and Joseph were the witnesses.
Russell and Joseph were partners between c. 1834 and 1837. At the end of their partnership, Russell opened a repair shop in Ligouri, County of Montcalm, Quebec, where he died in 1851. He may have continued to make clocks in his shop. His sepulture is in Rawdon, Quebec.
The Twiss brothers left several tall-case clocks with 30-hour movements made, probably mainly by Silas Hoadley. These clocks were built with pine with a finish to look like they were made in hardwoods. There is one at the Royal Ontario Museum. They also made furniture columns and splat-style clocks. (Sources: Burrows, 1973 and Varkaris & Connell, 1993) BACK

(J. H.) THRALL

Jason H. Thrall (c.1842-c. 1906) had a jewelry store on Mill Street in Almonte, Lanark County, Ontario, in the late 1860s, which moved to Bridge Street in 1884. He sold watches and probably American-made clocks to his name. BACK

(JOHN) TOBIN

John Tobin made clocks with wooden and brass movements with his name on them in Beaver River, Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia, C. 1847. BACK

(H. A. & J.) TOMKINS

Watch and clockmakers in Frederiction, New Brunswick, from 1871 to 1875. BACK

(JOHN) TRENAMAN

John Trenaman (1792-1868) was an England-born clockmaker established in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1820. He sold tall-case clocks, OG clocks, and a few watches under his name, probably imported from England and U. S. A. He lived all his life in Charlottetown. BACK

(ALEXANDER) TROUP

Alexander Troup (1776-1856) was born in Aberdeen, Scotland. He probably emigrated with his parents to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he opened a silversmithing and watchmaking shop on Argyle Street in 1802, which he held until his death. He bequeathed it to his wife, who took over by hiring James Carr, who finally bought the business in 1863, announcing himself as Alexander Troup’s successor. He is known to have about ten tall case clocks whose name is inscribed on the dials, probably all with English movements. The cases were made locally. According to Varkaris and Connell (1993), it may be the work of cabinetmaker James Thompson, one of Alexander’s executors. He also sold watches in his name. He was also repairing it. Finally, it appears that Alexander Troup completed the installation of the Halifax Public Clock on the east side of Citadel Hill, facing the harbor. BACK

(ALEXANDER) TROUP JR.

Alexander Troup Jr. (1806-1873) was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He entered his father’s service as an apprentice in 1820 until 1858, when he opened his watchmaking workshop where he may have sold his father’s clocks. BACK

(THOMAS) TROUP

Thomas Troup (1819-1877) was the second son of Alexander Sr., also born in Halifax. He worked as a watchmaker for his father and later for his older brother. BACK

TULLES, PALLISTER & McDONALD

Manufacturer of clock cases situated in Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 1810 to 1812. BACK

(NARCISSE) TURCOT: N. TURCOT, WATCH & CLOCK MAKER, JEWELLER & C.

N. Turcot, Watch & Clock Maker, Jeweller & C, 14 Mountain St. Quebec is listed in the Quebec City directory from 1844 to 1885. He mostly fabricated and sold pocket watches. BACK

(B. A.) UPSON

Upson sold clocks in the 1830s in the St. John area of New Brunswick, Lower Canada. These were so-called pillared and splat Transition clocks with 30-hour Eli Terri’s style wood movements, made by Ephraim Downs and Atkins and Downs of Bristol, Connecticut (Varkaris and Connell, 1993). Upson’s clock labels were bilingual (French-English), suggesting he had French-speaking clients from Lower Canada. BACK

(H.) UTLEY & CO.

Horace Utley built and sold American-style wood movement clocks in Niagara Falls, Upper Canada, probably from 1824 to 1835. As the labels claimed, the columns and splat cases were made by Utley, and the movements were from Riley Whiting of Winchester, Connecticut. See an example at The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(FRANÇOIS) VALIN

François Valin (1729-c. 1784) was a clockmaker and armurer installed in Québec, Lower-Canada. He had a shop on Fabrique St. in the 1750s during the period of Nouvelle-France. He sold tall-cases clocks with his name on them, imported from England. After the British Conquest, his shop was still there in the 1770s until his death. BACK

(C. H.) VAN NORMAN & CO.

Caleb H. and Abner E. Van Norman had a jewels and clocks store on James St. in Hamilton between 1851 and 1865. They sold large quantities of imported clocks. BACK

(W. H.) VAN TASSEL

Van Tassel was a successful peddler established in Brockville, Canada West, in the 1850s. Like many other peddlers, he sold Seth Thomas clocks with his name on the label in Leeds County mainly, mostly OG, 30 hours semi-columns, 8-day column, and cornice, all with brass spring movements. Here is one exposed at The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

(EDWARD) WADE

Edward Wade (1800-1847), a clockmaker from Quebec, Lower Canada, had a shop in Buade St. in the upper city, then on Mountain St., he sold many tall-case clocks with English dials and movements, from 1826 to 1845. BACK

(WILLIAM S.) WALKER AND COMPANY

Clock and watchmakers in Montreal, Quebec, in 1895. BACK

WALL AND TAYLOR

Clock and watchmakers in Toronto, Ontario, in 1885. BACK

(JOHN) WANLESS & SUSAN BELL -► JOHN WANLESS & CO.

John Wanless (1830-1919) was born in Berwickshire, Scotland. He became a jeweler and watchmaker. In the early 1860s, he came to Canada and settled in Toronto, Ontario. There, he managed Susan Bell’s (1827-1901) jewelry store on Yonge Street, which sold wholesale and retail jewelry, silverware, watches, and Seth Thomas clocks with the name John Wanless. He married Susan Bell in 1862, and the jewelry store took the name John Wanless and Co. His son John Jr. joined him around 1882, and he became a renowned gemologist and diamond dealer. John Sr. retired in 1908. BACK

(D. O. L.) WARLOCK

Daniel O’Leary Warlock (1819-1901) is originally from Ireland. He emigrated to New Brunswick in 1840 and settled in St. John. He had a business on King Street from 1857. He manufactured and sold clocks, among other things. One of his clocks is a part of the New Brunswick Museum collection. He lost his business in the great fire of 1877 but resettled. In 1880, he was an agent for E. Howard and Co. from Boston, Massachusetts, and for the American Watch Co. of Waltham, Massachusetts. He worked until a year before his death. BACK

(WILLIAM W.) WELLNER

William Wright Wellner (1844-1907) was born in Crapaud, Prince Edward Island. He worked as a watchmaker and goldsmith in Charlottetown. He learned his trade alongside John Page, a watchmaker, and Edwin Sterns, a goldsmith. He will make watches and clocks bearing his name. In 1868, he opened a jewelry store in Charlottetown, which he operated until he died in 1907. BACK

(WILLIAM T.) WELLNER -► WW. WELLNER CO.

William T. (1882-1942), son of William W. Wellner, inherited his father’s business. Later, his daughter Beulah worked there as Lloyd E.y was incorporated in 1919 as  W.W. Welner Co. The Wellner business was incorporated in 1919 under the name W.W. Wellner Co. Lloyd’s son, Arthur Woodford, continued the trade until 1960. BACK

WELLS AND MACKENZIE

Clock and watchmaker in Quebec City in 1826. BACK

WENGER’S LTD

This Montreal, Quebec-based firm involved in watches, movements, cases, and watch dials was founded in 1923 by the Wenger family, which still owns it. In 1950, she registered the GLADSTONE watch with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. But its leading brand is now CARDINAL alongside other brands such as Citadel, Caprice, and Wenger. It is a supplier of watches for department stores and jewelers. His watches are made from parts purchased all over the world. The company also has an office in Toronto, Ontario. BACK

(T. J.) WHEELER

Thomas John Wheeler had a shop in Georgetown, Ontario, from 1846 to 1863. He mainly sold New Haven American-made clocks with his label that he glued over the existing ones. BACK

(JAMES) WHITE

James White (1825-1894) was born in New Brunswick. He was a clock and watchmaker in Fredericton during the 1850s. He did his apprenticeship with Justin Spahn, the watchmaker of his hometown. He was involved in developing the clock of the Christ Church Cathedral in Fredericton with the famous English amateur horologist Edmund Beckett Denison, the designer of the Westminster Tower Clock in London, England. So, White installed the clock designed by Denison for the Cathedral in Fredericton and made several improvements that Denison praised. In 1851, he built an astronomical clock of very high quality that won a prize at the Industrial Exhibition in St. John, New Brunswick. White is one of the best few Canadian-born horologists. BACK

(J. N.) WHITE AND COMPANY

Clock and watchmakers in Coaticook, Quebec, in 1895. BACK

WHITEHEAD AND COMPANY

Clock and watchmakers in Stratford, Ontario, in 1868. BACK

(A. S.) WHITING

Algeron Sidney Whiting (1807-1876) was born in 1807 in Winsted, Connecticut, United States. Associated with the L. Gilbert family, he first apprenticed as a clock salesman. In 1842, Whiting moved to Cobourg, Ontario, Canada, and resumed his trade as a clock salesman. He had acquired about 100 clocks made in New England, transported by boat to Port Hope on the shores of Lake Ontario. From there, he bought a cart and horses and began to roam his neighborhood, where he sold clocks to farmers, often in exchange for meals and accommodation. Since he had a relationship with the L. Gilbert family, most of the clocks he sold were L. Gilbert, but he did not put his name on the clocks as many others did. BACK

(HENRY) WHITNEY AND BROTHER

Henry Whitney and his brother A. Whitney worked as clockmakers or clock dealers in Brockville, Canada West, in the 1850s and the 1860s. There are not enough references to say more. BACK

(STEPHEN) WILLCOCK

Stephen Willcock (1845-1927) was a watchmaker and jeweler from Toronto, Ontario, from 1867 to 1895. He is one of the few Canadian watchmakers to have obtained patents in both Canada and the United States, one for the chime mechanism (No. 36532) obtained in 1891 (US. Patent no. 451353), the other to improve the sound quality of the chimes (No. 51032) obtained in 1895, (US Patent no. 557040 as of March 24, 1896). Most of these patents were implanted in clocks of the New Haven Clock Co. BACK

(WILLIAM) WILLOX

William Willox (1801-1870) worked as a gardener in Scotland. He is said to have emigrated to Canada in the 1830s with his wife and children. He was neither a watchmaker nor a cabinetmaker. But a clock that he built is at the Niagara On The Lake Museum. It has a walnut case in the Chippendale style. On the face of the clock is a drawing of Adam and Eve named William Willox. The movement is from the Scottish watchmaker WM. Donald, Rhynie, whom Willox probably brought with him on his journey to Canada. BACK

(REGINALD) WILSON AND COMPANY

Clock and watchmakers in St. Mary’s, Ontario, in 1895. BACK

WILSON AND MCCALL

Clock and watchmakers in Woodstock, Ontario, in 1875. BACK

WOLHAUPTER AND SONS

John Wolhaupter (1771-1839), a silversmith and clockmaker originally from New York, and his sons Benjamin and Charles, established in Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1795, sold tall-case clocks with English movements until 1840. Some of the cases may have been made locally. BACK

(JOHN) WOOD AND SON

John Wood (1793-1872), an English clockmaker, did his apprenticeship in London. In 1832, he emigrated to Canada with his wife and children and established his family in Montreal. He rented a space in a tinsmith shop on St-Lawrence Street, where he did not stay very long. Then, he went to work briefly as a farmer outside of Montreal. He returned in 1835 and worked in the shop of George Savage from 1835 to 1839. Then he opened his shop on St Paul St. and named it John Wood and Son. He imported clocks from England and later on from the U.S.A. His sons, Charles (1817-1892), the son of the business’s name, and Peter (1826-1907) helped him with the steadily growing business. He acquired David Savage’s bankrupt shop in 1848. But his son Charles left Montreal with his family. John moved several times to bigger shops. Peter was put in charge of one of them. BACK

JOHN WOOD & CO. -► WOOD AND ALLAN -► JOHN WOOD & SON

In 1864, Peter Wood, John’s son, left his father’s business. Then John took Thomas Allan as a new partner, changed the name to John Wood & Co., and in 1865, to Wood and Allan. In 1869, John refused to sell to Allan, the partnership was dissolved, and the name John Wood & Son was back. His grandson, Wentworth, son of Peter Wood, helped his grandfather until his death. BACK

(R.) WOODRUFF

Woodruff sold wood movements tall-case clocks of American origin in Burford, Upper Canada, in the 1830s, with his name on it with several ornaments. BACK

(B.) YOUNG & BROTHERS: B. YOUNG AND BROTHERS -► B. YOUNG & CO. -► B. & W. YOUNG & CO. -► B. & W. YOUNG

The Young brothers were active peddlers in Amherst, Nova Scotia, and St. Stephen, New Brunswick, from 1840 to 1850. They sold weight 30-hour clocks from different manufacturers with labels with different denominations, B. Young and Brothers, Amherst, N.S., B. Young & Co., St Stevens (wrong spelling), N.B., B. & W. Young & Co. St Stephen, N. B. or B & W Young, St Stephen, N. B., making believe that they were the manufacturers. Here is an example from The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

3.11.3 – Canadian Division of U.S.A. Clock Manufacturers

Several U.S. clock manufacturers have established themselves in Canada, primarily in Ontario, where they produced clocks of all kinds that included Canadian labels, including Canadian-specific models. Here is the list:

CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRIC (1930-1959)

General Electric already had financial interests in The Warren Telechron Co, known as Telechron, from 1946 to 1951, when it took control of the company in 1943. Its Toronto, Ontario plant produced electric bedside clocks and kitchen mural clocks for the Canadian market from 1930 until the late 1950s. Some of these clocks have been named Telechron, and others General Electric. For more information, see The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

CANADIAN JEFFERSON ELECTRIC CO. LTD (mid-20th c.)

Jefferson, an American Company that produced “electric mystery clocks” in U. S. A., had, according to a specialist of Jefferson Clocks, Roger Russell, a sales office in Canada, at 384 Pape Ave, in Toronto in the middle of the 20th century. It was probably a marketing and wholesale office to promote Jefferson clocks in Canada. BACK

EDWARDS AND COMPANY OF CANADA (1929-2003)

Robert Stafford Edwards Jr., son of one of the founders of Edwards and Company in the U. S. A. was educated in Montreal, where his father worked for Northern Electric Company as General Supply Manager. Robert Jr received his education in Montreal schools. In 1912, he returned to the United States and became Edwards and Company US President. In 1929, he created Edwards and Company of Canada to market Edwards products with sales agents in Montreal, Toronto, and Western provinces. In 1935, he established a factory in Montreal, and in 1947, he moved to a new factory in Owen Sound, Ontario. In 1962, the company became an operation unit of General Signal Corporation. With several acquisitions, it became the biggest alarm system company in Canada, In October 1998, General Signal merged with SPX Corporation, and in 2001 became an operating unit of SPX Canada, Inc. At some point, SPX Canada, Inc. became inactive around 2003. At that time, SPX Corporation sold several companies he owned, including Edwards Signaling, now under the Carrier Group. BACK

INGERSOLL-WATERBURY CO. (1920)

The Connecticut Waterbury Clock Co. had an office in Montreal, Quebec, on 209 St-Catherine East St, during the 1920s through probably 1932. G. R. L’Espérance was the sole representative in Canada of the Ingersoll-Waterbury Co. (Connell, 1999). BACK

INGRAHAM CANADIAN CLOCK CO. LTD (1948-1980)

Like many American clock manufacturers, Ingraham opened a factory in Toronto, Ontario, to respond to the needs of the Canadian market, sometimes with specific models. BACK

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINE CO. LTD (1917…)

IBM is an American company established in Toronto, Ontario. In those early years, its production mainly was business clocks, such as punch clocks for manufacture. BACK

SETH THOMAS CLOCKS CANADA (1930-1985)

Seth Thomas clocks made in Canada are generally copies of American designs. The only way to recognize them is by the label of the clock. Note that the Seth Thomas was manufactured by Western Clock Co., Ltd. of Peterborough, Ontario. For more information, consult The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

THE HAMMOND COMPANY OF CANADA LTD (1931-1936)

According to The Canadian Clock Museum, Hammond Clock from Chicago, Illinois, made clocks in Toronto from 1931 to 1936. BACK

THE NEW HAVEN CLOCK CO. (1930-1950)

The New Haven Clock Co. is an American manufacturer established in Brantford, Ontario. Most of their clocks have been assembled with American-made parts, with some cases probably made by Canadian manufacturers. BACK

THE WESTERN CLOCK CO. LTD (WESTCLOX) (1912-1980)

The Western Clock Co. Ltd. (Westclox) is an American manufacturer in Peterborough, Ontario, producing the famous Westclox clocks and several clocks for Seth Thomas Canada. The Western Clock also had an office in Toronto, Ontario. For more information, consult The Canadian Clock Museum. BACK

3.11.4 – Canadian Division of Great-Britain Clock Manufacturers

RUSSELL WATCH AND CHRONOMETER MANUFACTORY

In the late 1870s, Russel Watch and Chronometer Manufactory was a division based in Toronto, Ontario, of the same name company from Liverpool, England. BACK

Next: 4.00 – Taxonomy of clocks

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