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3.03.1 – The U.S.A. Clockmaking History Highlights
In the 17th century, clocks were rare and expensive in America, as they had to be imported from England. It is the church’s clock that gives the inhabitants time. So, the first clocks built in America were public clocks for churches and municipal buildings. Only with immigrants’ arrival, mainly from the United Kingdom, among whom there were clockmakers trained there, clocks began to be made to replace the hourglasses previously used in private houses to mark time. The first clocks were Lantern Clocks with weights built of metal, especially brass, in the style of what was done in England at the same time. As far back as we can go, the first American watchmakers came from England and Holland at the end of the 17th century. Moore (1911) identified the first two: William Davis, who arrived with his family in Boston in 1683, and Everardus Bogardus, who worked in New York in 1698 but had been there since 1675 (Spittler and Bailey, 2000). James Batterson announced in 1707 that he had come from London, England, via Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Spittler and Bailey, 2000) and ran a watch and clock shop in Boston, Mass. However, according to Spittler and Bailey (2000), the first real clockmaker in the United States would be Abel Cottey (1655-1711). The latter, born in England, worked at Crediton in Devon and would have come to Philadelphia in 1682 on the ship Welcome with William Penn. He is known for an English-style lantern clock and some floor clocks with 8-day brass movements. In Exeter, the Royal Albert Museum has kept one of its clocks, made in America, a lantern with large wheels but very solidly built. Subsequently, with the pendulum’s discovery in 1657, the style changed, and clockmakers began in England and then in America to make wooden clocks. In 1712, Benjamin Bagnall (1689-1773), born in England, was the first clockmaker in Boston to manufacture and sell clocks, mostly 8-day clocks with hardwood casings. In Philadelphia, he is said to have been the apprentice of Peter Stretch (1670-1746), who apprenticed in 1702, with his uncle, Samuel Stretch, in Leek, England.
From 1733, the English colonies became stronger economically, and the inhabitants could purchase clocks. A market then opened for some cabinetmakers and clockmakers who began to handcraft tall-case clocks with brass movements inspired by English longcase clocks. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was then the center of manufacturing these with clockmakers such as Odrian Dupee (or Dupuy), who announced himself in 1735 as a “Watch Finisher.” Later in Boston, Massachusetts, we’ll see him in 1739, working with Benjamin Bagnall Sr. In 1734, John Bell announced 8-day floor clocks in Japanese cases in New York. In January 1757, Christian Syberberg, a clockmaker, announced that he had just established himself at the Sign of the Dial in the house of Mrs. Mary Kippen, where he repairs all kinds of clocks and watches. Also, it has just imported silver watches from London that he offers at a reasonable price. But on January 10, he announced that he had just been robbed and offered the public a reward for anyone who would help him bring to justice the villains who stole him. In the same year, George Chester, a London clockmaker, informed the New York public in the New York Mercury of March 7 that he had just opened a Sign of the Dial shop, where he sells and repairs all kinds of watches and clocks. In 1758, John Ent also appeared in the New York Mercury on May 1st as a Sign of the Dial clockmaker. It was a widespread practice to name the clockmaker’s shops “Sign of the Dial” but specify the name of the street and often the name of the clockmaker who occupies the workshop or that of the owner of the building. Several other clockmakers have done the same in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
Pennsylvania clockmakers’ contribution to the history of American clockmaking is remarkable. David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) is the central character. Moore (1911) called him a genius. He made unique floor clocks and scientific instruments. He was also a talented mathematician, astronomer, and even a philosopher, as he was president of the American Philosophical Society from 1790 until his death. His friend and executor Edward Duffield (1720-1803) also made tower clocks and movements of floor clocks made by the best cabinetmakers. He also maintained the public clock at the State House in Philadelphia.
But it was in New England that the American clock industry developed. Thomas Harland (1735-1807), an English immigrant clockmaker, was established in Norwich, Connecticut, in 1773 as a repairman and manufacturer of clocks and watches. His business was successful until 1806. He trained several apprentices who would become pillars of the clockmaking business in Connecticut: Jedidiah Baldwin (1768-1849), Daniel Burnap (1759-1838), William Cleveland (1770-1839), Erza Dodge (1766-1798), Seril Dodge (?-1802), David Greenleaf, Jr. (1765-1835), Nathaniel Shipman (1764-1853), Eli Terry (1772-1852), Gurdon Tracy (1767-1792). Then clockmakers from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, were highly successful in setting up businesses, obtaining patents, developing original clock models, etc. Note the Terry family [Eli Sr. (1772-1852), his brother Samuel (1774-1853); Eli’s sons: Eli Jr. (1799-1841), Henry (1801-1877), Silas Burnham (1807-1876)], Seth Thomas (1785-1859), Chauncey Jerome (1793-1868), Hiram Camp (1811-1893), Georges Welles Bartholomew (1805-1898), Benjamin Cheney (1725-1815), Elias Ingraham (1805-1885). Important Massachusetts clockmakers include Benjamin Willard’s family, Sr., who had twelve children, four of whom were clockmakers: Benjamin, Jr. (1743-1803), Aaron (1757-1844), Ephraim (1755-?), Simon, 1753-1848; Daniel Munroe (1775-1859) and Nathaniel Munroe (1777-1861). From New Hampshire, we can quote Timothy Chandler (1762-1848).
3.03.2 – The Evolution of American Clocks
|Année / Year||Nom / Name||Initiateur / Initiator|
|1760||Long-case Floor Clock (Parquet longue)||Willard Brothers|
|1770||Dwarf Tall Clock (Petite horloge de parquet )||Simon Willard|
|1770-1790||Massachusetts Shelf Timepiece (Horloge de tablette du Massachusetts)||Aaron Willard|
|c. 1790-1793||Wagg-on-wall (Horloge murale pendante)||Gideon Roberts|
|1795-1802 (Brevet - Patent : 1802)||Banjo||Simon Willard|
|1807-1810||Mass-produced wood movements ( Mouvements en bois fabriqués en série)||Eli Terry|
|1810-1818 (Brevet - Patent : 1816)||Girandole||Lemuel Curtis|
|1816||Box Clock (Horloge Boîte)||Eli Terry & Seth Thomas (experimental box clocks)|
|1816-1819||Pillars and Scrolls (Colonnes et volutes)||Eli Terry|
|1816-1818||Wagon-spring Clock (Horloge à ressorts style calèche)||Joseph Ives|
|1819-1822 (1822 : Brevet - Patent)||New Hampshire or Mirror clock (Horloge New Hampshire ou Miroir)||Joseph Ives|
|1822||Lighthouse (Phare)||Simon Willard|
|1822||Column and Stencil Splat, short pendulum (Colonne et fronton au pochoir, balancier court)||Eli Terry|
|1823||Lyre||Aaron Willard Jr.|
|1824||Double Decker (Deux ponts)||Bradley & Bishop|
|1825||Bronze Looking Glass (Miroir Bronze)||Chauncey Jerome
|1825||Miniature Shelf Clock (Horloge de tablette miniature)||Curtiss and Clark|
|1825||Column Clock (Horloge à colonnes)||Curtis & Clark|
|1825||Column and Carved Splat Short Pendulum (Colonne et fronton sculpté, balancier court)||Eli Terry|
|1825||Munger Shelf (Étagère Munger)||A. Munger|
|1825-1830||Hourglass 30-hour Wagon-spring (Horloge 30 heures à ressort de calèche)||Joseph Ives|
|1826||Grecian Clock (Horloge style grec)||Joseph Ives|
|1828||Columns & Splat||Elias Ingraham|
|1828||Column and Stenciled Splat (Colonne et fronton au pochoir)||Jeromes & Darrow|
|1828||Column and Carved Splat (Colonne et fronton sculpté)||Elias Ingraham|
|1830||Carved Columns or Transition||Elias Ingraham|
|1830||Hollow Columns (Colonnes creuses)||E. & G. Bartholomew|
|1830||Triple Decker (Triple ponts )||Elias Ingraham|
|1830-1860||Columns and Cornice||Seth Thomas|
|c. 1830||O'Gee (Doucine)||?|
|1835-1840||Cottage Clock||Seth Thomas|
|1837||Gallery (Galerie)||Simon Willard|
|1840||Beehive or Gothic (Ruche d'abeilles ou Gothique)||Elias Ingraham|
|c. 1840||Bevel Clock (Horloge Biseau)||?|
|c. 1840||Steeple or Sharp Gothic (Clocher ou Gothique pur)||Elias Ingraham|
|1841||Torsion Pendulum Clock||Aaron D. Crane|
|1844-1847||Gothic-on-Frame or Four Steeples (Gothique sur base ou à Quatre clochers)||Birge and Fuller|
|1845||Skeleton Timepiece (Horloge squelette)||Silas Burnham Terry|
|1847-1850||Acorn (Noisette)||Jonathan Clarke Brown|
|c. 1850||Iron-front (Devanture en fer)||C. & N. Muller, New York|
|c. 1850||Mother-of-Perle (À coquillages)||?|
|1850||Lever or Marine Clock (Horloge Nautique)||?|
|1850||Schoolhouse (Horloge d'école)||Chauncey Jerome|
|1850-1855||Papier-mâché||Litchfield Mfg. Co., Conn. or Imported from England|
|1853||Calendar Clock (Horloge Calendrier)|
|1855||Rotary Clock (Horloge rotatoire)||John C. Briggs|
|1857||Blinking Eye or "Winkers" (Clin d'oeil)||Pietro Cinquini|
|1860||Doric or Two-side Top and Four-side Top (Fronton ou Dorique ou à 2 versants ou à 4 côtés)||Elias Ingraham|
|1863||Novelty (Gadget ou de fantaisie)|
|1863||Globe Timepiece (Horloge mondiale)||Theodore R. Timby|
|1866||Federal Shelf Clock (After 1861-1865 Civil War)|
|1867||Improved Time globe||Louis Paul Juvet|
|1868||Crystal Regulator (Régulateur en crystal)|
|1870||Figure 8||E. Howard Clock & Watch Co.|
|1870||Porcelain "Belleek" (Porcelaine) or (ou) Royal Bonn (imported from Germany - importée d'Allemagne)||Made by Willets Manufacturing Co. and Ott & Brewer Co. Trenton, N. J.|
|1870||Columns and Cornice with Porthole (Colonnes et corniche avec hublot)|
|1870||Sidewalk Clock (Horloge de trottoir)||E. Howard Clock Co.|
|c. 1870||Parlor Clock (Horloge de parloir)|
|1875||Figured Mantle (Horloge de cheminée à figurine)|
|1876||Illuminating Alarm||Ansonia Brass & Copper Co.|
|1876||Bedside Alarm (Réveil-matin de chevet)||Seth Thomas|
|1880-1915||Pressed Oak Kitchen (De cuisine en chêne)|
|1880-1920||Black Mantel Greek Temple with columns|
|1880-1920||Black Mantel Greek Temple without columns|
|1880||Rotary Clock (Horloge à pendule conique)||F. Kroeber Clock. Co., New York|
|1883||Flying Pendulum Clock||A. C. Clausen, design; New Haven Clock Co., under Jerome & Co. name|
|1884||Thermo-regulator with clock||J.A. Lakin & Seth Thomas|
|1884||Electro-Mechanical Clock||Chester Henry Pond|
|1886-187||Advertising Clock (Horloge publicitaire)||Sidney Advertising Clock Co. & Baird Clock Co.|
|1889-1908||The “Darche” Electric Alarm Clock||Darche Mfg. Co.|
|1891-1910||Elechrometer self-winding clock|
|1895||Art Nouveau Style Clock|
|1902-1904||Digital Lantern or Plato (Lanterne numérique ou Plato)||Eugene Fitch|
|1905||Wizard or Slot-Machine Clock (Horloge à machine à boules)||Loheide Manufacturing Co.|
|1906||Jewell, first programmable thermostat with a clock||Mark Honeywell|
|1909||Westclox Big Ben Alarm Clock||Western Clock Manufacturing Co.|
|1910||American Cuckoos (Coucou)||Pennsylvania and Connecticut|
|c. 1910||Humpback, Napoleon Hat or Tambour (Dos de chameau et tambour)|
|1911||Time Recorder Punch Clock||IBM|
|1917||Novelty Clock Specialists||Lux Manufacturing Co. & Keebler, distributor|
|c. 1918||The Telechron or Synchronous Electric Clock||Henry Ellis Warren|
|1920||Mission Style Clock||Gustav Stickley, designer|
|1923||Poole Battery Electric Clock||Arthur F. Poole|
|c. 1930||Art deco style clock|
|1937||James Remond-O-Clock Timer||Henry C. James Jr.|
|1949||Golden Hour Electric||Jefferson Electric Co.|
|1960||Bulova Accutron (First Electronic Clock)||Bulova|
3.03.3 – Clockmakers
ABBOTT, Henry (1850-1943)
Born in Danbury, Connecticut, he did his apprenticeship in Newark, New Jersey, and established a shop in New York City in 1871. He was a prolific inventor, having obtained more than 40 patents. His most famous patent was for a Self-winding device (1892) that has been on the market for 11 years. Fifty thousand were in use at the time. Henry Abbott invented the Calculagraph and founded a company to manufacture and market the device.
ANDREWS, Franklin C.
- 1835-1837: L. & F. Andrews, Bristol, Conn.
- 1837-1842: L. M. & F. C. Andrews, Bristol, Conn. – Andrews and brother Lucius M. rented the Sherman Treat’s mechanic shop on Pequabuck River near Bristol downtown in 1837 and made 30-hour O.G. clocks and shelf clocks with wood movements.
- 1843-1850: partner in Terry & Andrews, Bristol, Conn.
- 1850-1852: partner in Ansonia Clock Co., Ansonia, Conn.
- 1847-1860: owned a sales store in New York, N. Y.
- ANDREWS, Lucius M.: brother of Franklin C. and partner in L. & F. Andrews and L. M. & F. C. Andrews, Bristol, Conn. from 1835 to 1843.
Charles Babbitt (1786-1854) worked as a clockmaker, goldsmith, and jeweler in Taunton, Massachusetts, where he was born. He made and sold banjo clocks with maple panels and 8-day floor clocks from 1807 to 1850.
BALL, Webster Clay (1847-1922)
Born in Edlingham, Northumberland, England, he worked as a watchmaker in London from 1745 to 1749 and went to Boston, Mass., in mid-January 1749. Specializing in the maintenance of large clocks and tower clocks, he occupied a workshop that he moved to several times until 1796.
BROWN, George Whitfield
– Forestville, Conn., 1930-1804
BROWN, Jonathan Clark
– Forestville, Connecticut, 1832-1858
BURNAP, Daniel (1759-1838)
– East Windsor, Conn., c. 1780-1800; Coventry (Andover), Conn. 1800-1838
CAMP, Hiram (1811-1893)
The nephew of Chauncey Jerome founded New Haven Clock Co.
- ABIEL CHANDLER (1807-1881) – Concord, New Hampshire, c. 1820-1829
- A. CHANDLER – CO. – Concord, New Hampshire, 1829-1881
- TIMOTHY (Major) CHANDLER (1762-1848) – Concord, New Hampshire, 1785-1829
- ASAHEL CHENEY – East Hartford, Conn., c. 1780-1790; Northfield, Mass., 1790-1795; Putney, Vermont, 1795-1809
- BENJAMIN CHENEY (1725-1815) – East Hartford, Conn.
- MARTIN CHENEY – Windsor, Vermont, 1803-1809; Montreal, Quebec, 1809-1829
– Lexington, Mass, c. 1831-1837
– Newport, Rhode Island, 1696-1749
Apprentice of Eli Terry, Heman Clark (1783-1838) bought his old Plymouth, Connecticut shop in 1807 and sold it to Seth Thomas in 1813; c.1823 or later, he opened two shops in Plymouth, Mass.
DENNISON, Aaron L.
– Brunswick, Maine, 1812-1895, Birmingham, Angleterre. Aaron L. Dennison is a pioneer of watchmaking in the U.S.A.
FASOLDT, Charles (1819-1898)
FEISHTINGER, Charles W. (1851-1926)
– Fritztown (Sinking Springs), Pennsylvania
Born in England in 1735, he emigrated to Norwich, Massachusetts. He died in 1807
JOHN BAILEY II
Johan Bailey from Hanover, Massachusetts, was born in 1751, worked as a clockmaker and died in 1823.
LUMAN WATSON (1790-1834)
– Cincinnati, Ohio, 1809-1834
MARSH, George C. (1794-1862)
– Winsted, Conn.
MITCHELL, George (1774-1852)
– Bristol, Conn., 1820-1832
– Auburn, N.Y., 1820-1840
OWEN, George B. (1834-1914)
Born in Tonbridge, Kent, England, Owen came to the U.S.A. in 1840, built and sold clocks in New York from 1852 to 1864, then came to Winsted, Connecticut, in 1866, where he continued to build and sell clocks from 1875 to 1879 under his name. After a fire, he had to rebuild his factory, called his new business Winsted Clock Co. from 1879 to 1894, and became general manager of Wm. L. Gilbert from 1879 to 1914 when the latter bought Owen’s business and closed it down.
RITTENHOUSE, David (1732-1796)
ROBERTS, Gideon (1749-1813)
– Concord, Mass., 1808-1817
TABER, Elnathan (1767-1854)
Simon Willard’s apprentice from 1784 to 1789, Taber built in his garden Roxbury, Massachusetts shop, tall-case clocks, Massachusetts shelf clocks, and banjo clocks with the inscription “S. Willard’s Patent.” When the latter retired, Taber bought his business with tools and goodwill.
– Norwich, Conn., c. 1774-1807
WHITING, Riley (?-1835)
– Winchester and Winstead, Conn, 1808–1835
Benjamin Sr and Sarah Brooks Willard had twelve children. Four of them became clockmakers: Benjamin Jr., Simon, Ephraim, and Aaron:
- BENJAMIN WILLARD Jr (1743-1803), born in Grafton, Massachusetts, made clocks in East Hartford at the beginning of 1760 and in Grafton in the middle of 1760, then in Lexington from 1768 to 1771. In 1773, he installed a shop on Roxbury Street in Boston, where he built and sold clocks with his brother Simon. They built a musical clock playing each hour, a tune that varied daily, and a psalm on Sunday. He died in Baltimore in 1803.
- SIMON WILLARD (1753-1848), born in Grafton, Massachusetts, is the family’s greatest clockmaker. He died in Boston, Massachusetts.
- SIMON WILLARD JR. (1795-1881), son of Simon, born in Boston, Mass., in 1795, began clockmaking in 1824 at his father’s shop. He died in Boston.
- BENJAMIN FRANKLIN WILLARD (1803-1847), son of Simon, was born and died in Boston; he worked in Boston’s father’s shop, where he learned clockmaking.
- EPHRAIM WILLARD, born in 1755, built clocks in Medford, Mass. from 1777 to 1784, then in Boston and Roxbury, Mass. from 1784 to 1804, and finally in New York from 1805 to 1832.
- AARON WILLARD (1757-1844) was born in Grafton, Massachusetts: from 1780 to 179 had a shop in Roxbury, then in Boston from 1795 to 1823, where he was the first to build ‘Banjo” clocks.
- AARON JR. WILLARD (1783-1864), son of Aaron, born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, worked in clockmaking in Boston from 1823 to 1863: he designed the lyre clock.
- HENRY WILLARD (1802-1887)
WILLARD BROTHERS, 2nd family
- JACOB WILLARD: Jacob Willard (1734-1808) farmer in Ashburnham, Mass., a descendant of Colonel Simon Willard, and his wife Rhoda Randall from Stow, Vermont, had two children, Alexander Tarbell and Philander Jacob, who were both involved in the clockmaking.
- ALEXANDER TARBELL WILLARD: from 1801 to 1820, in Ashby, Mass., he built cheap wooden case clocks, but with fined brass movements, some of these clocks were organ-type clocks.
- PHILANDER JACOB WILLARD (1772-1840)
3.03.4 – Manufacturers
NOTE: in the following list, when the company’s name begins with “The,” it is put between ( ), following the first name, and it is classified according to that name. The name is bold when a family is involved or a famous company with several iterations. It follows the several iterations of the companies attached to that name to understand their evolution.
Sources: Loomes, 2006, 2020; Mallory, 2011; Moore, 1911; Palmer, 1928-1950-1966 (7th printing), Spittler & Bailey, 2000; Tran Duy Ly, 1989 et 1999; Tran Duy Ly, 2002.
ABBOTT, Samuel (1791-1861)
Maker of shelf clocks, wall banjo and lyre, a few longcases, and the New-Hampshire Mirror clocks at several places:
- Dover, New Hampshire, 1812-1820.
- Boston, Mass., 1827-1831.
- Montpelier, Vermont, 1830-1853; he partnered with a Mr. Freeman in 1831-1832 under the name ABBOTT & FREEMAN, clock and watchmaker and silversmith.
- Montpelier, Vermont 1853-1861: his son, John Sullivan Abbott (1816-?), took over the business in a new location on State St.
ACCURATE TIME STAMP COMPANY -> STANDARD TIME STAMP COMPANY
Accurate Time Stamp Co. was incorporated in New York, N. Y., on February 6, 1890, and sold a complete Automatic Time-Dating System. It was renamed Standard Time Stamp on February 5, 1891. Bundy Manufacturing Co. bought Standard Time Stamp Co. in 1899.
AMERICAN CHIME CLOCK CO.
Louis A. Breitinger was the president of this Nicetown, Pennsylvania, company that sold from 1916 to 1922 clock case kits of all styles, banjo, mantle, and grandfather clocks. The buyer installed movements from other companies in an assembled case.
(THE) AMERICAN CLOCK CO.
- AMERICAN CLOCK CO. – Depot 3, Cortlandt St., New York, 1850-1864.
- AMERICAN CLOCK CO. – Depot 4, Cortlandt St., New York, 1864-1879.
AMERICAN CLOCK CO.
August Hall created the American Clock Company in Chicago, Illinois when The Automatic Electric Clock Co. from Kansas City, Missouri (1897-1901) and The United States Pneumatic Clock Co. from Chicago, Illinois (1898-1901) merged. They manufactured electric battery clocks in Chicago from 1901 to 1908.
AMERICAN CLOCK COMPANY
This Claremont, California company was selling clocks through catalogs, every type of clock, from grandfather, mantle, wall, and hourglass. They had a store that offered repair for antique, foreign, or domestic clocks. They were also in the trade of custom commercial and tower clocks built on order or chosen in their catalog. This company still exists in Claremont on 111 Harvard Ave. since 1926. You may consult its website.
AMERICAN CLOCK CORPORATION
This company is listed in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in Oakland, California, 1921-1922 (Mallory, 2011).
AMERICAN CUCKOO CLOCK CO.
– Brooklyn, N.Y., 1885-1945
AMERICAN (THE) ELECTRICAL NOVELTY AND MANUFACTURING CO.
– 304-308 Hudson St., New York, 1898-1904
AMERICAN HOROLOGE COMPANY (1850-1851) -> THE WARREN MANUFACTURING CO. (1851-1853) -> BOSTON WATCH CO.
American Horologe Company, Roxbury, Massachusetts, was created in 1850 by David Davis, Aaron Dennison, and Edward Howard. They wanted to manufacture watches of quality with interchangeable parts to lower costs. They began a small production of watches in 1851 under the name The Warren Manufacturing Co. while encountering production problems due to innovative methods that required sophisticated tools and many adjustments. Financially, it was difficult, even with the help of Samuel Curtis, a small arms manufacturer. The first watches were ready in 1852 but sold to the public only in 1853. During that time, a factory was under construction and was ready only in 1853. In the beginning, the business was named American Horologe Company. In September 1853, the name changed to Boston Watch Company.
AMERICAN REMINDER CLOCK CO.
– Binghamton, New York, 1928-?
AMERICAN (THE) EVERREADY CLOCK CO.
– 1906, New York, acquires 1/2 of The American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Co.
AMERICAN WATCH COMPANY (1859-1885) -> AMERICAN WALTHAM WATCH COMPANY (1885-1906) -> WALTHAM WATCH COMPANY (1906-1923)
During the Civil War, American Watch Co. suffered many financial difficulties. Facing bankruptcy in 1861, it was kept afloat with severe expense cuts. That worked being able to produce a diversified quantity of watches, from low-end to high-end. In 1885, the name changed to American Waltham Watch Company. In 1906, it became Waltham Watch Co. then in 1923 Waltham Watch and Clock Co. Finally, it went back to the name Waltham Watch Co. in 1925.
- ANSONIA CLOCK CO. – Bristol, Conn. (1850-1854): Founded in 1850 by three shareholders, Anson G. Phelps (1781-1853), a New York businessman involved in wool, copper, and brass mills in Ansonia, Connecticut, and two partners in a clock factory, the Terry & Andrews of Bristol, Connecticut, Theodore Terry (1808-1881), son of Samuel Terry and nephew of Eli Terry, and Franklin C. Andrews (1816-1881), clockmaker and businessman. Terry & Andrews was, in 1850, the largest clock factory in Bristol and the second largest in the United States with the Jerome Manufacturing Company, which then manufactured 55% of the clocks. Phelps, who owned mills along the Pequabuck River in Ansonia, Connecticut, was intensely interested in attracting a clock factory there. He convinced Terry & Andrews to come and settle there. The new entity was then called Ansonia Clock Co. In late 1851 Andrews sold all but one of his shares in the company, which he sold to Hubbell Pierce Terry. Phelps sold 1,000 of his 2,000 shares in Ansonia in 1853 to his son-in-law, John B. Stokes, to whom he sold the rest before his death. Stokes was the trustee of Phelps, Dodge & Co., which became the majority shareholder of Ansonia Clock, with Theodore Terry retaining 1999 shares and H.B. Terry, only one. Ansonia had the wind in its sails until the fire of November 1854 that destroyed the factory. Following a directors’ meeting in Bridgeport, Connecticut, it was decided to sell the factory land and ruins to A. G. Phelps Jr., William E. Dodge, Daniel James, James Stokes, William E. Downs Jr. & D. Willis James for $8,000. The rest of the Ansonia Clock Co. was sold to the directors of Phelps, Dodge & Co.
- Period 1855 to 1869 – Clocks bearing the Ansonia Clock Co. name on the dial were produced during this period, probably by the company of Theodore Terry and his cousin Silas. B. Terry, the Terryville Manufacturing Co., of which Theodore was the chairman and majority shareholder. Also, it seems that Phelps, Dodge & Co. continued to manufacture clock movements and clocks in a case in small numbers, some bearing the brand Ansonia Brass Co. with the label with a picture of the factory destroyed by the fire of 1854. A few other clocks bore the Ansonia Brass & Battery Co. name. Also, about 22,000 movements were manufactured in 1860, and 2,000 clocks in cases were made by the Ansonia Brass & Battery Mill, a company owned by Phelps, Dodge & Co.
- ANSONIA BRASS AND COPPER CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1869-1877 – At the beginning of 1869, the Ansonia Brass & Battery Co. became the Ansonia Brass & Copper Co., whose purpose was to produce not only clocks but also copper and brass wire and rods and other articles of wood or metal. The American Clock Company of New York was responsible for selling Ansonia clocks and the ones of other Connecticut manufacturers. His catalog of 1873 included 45 different models equipped with 14 different movements. In 1877, a decision was made to separate the brass mill from the clock factory. This is how the original name of Ansonia Clock Co. appeared as a company responsible for producing, importing, and selling clocks and all associated parts and articles or ornaments. The directors of the new firm were all from New York. They were the directors of Phelps, Dodge & Co., and Henry J. Davies. The latter was the manager of clock manufacturing for George A. Jones & Co. in the early 1870s. In 1873, Davies took control of the company that sold the rest of the Jones clocks as well as the wooden parlor clocks he had designed for Jones for sale via the American Clock Co. The Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. also provided him with most of his movements and some clock models. Ansonia Clock Co. bought Davies’ business and integrated it into the new Ansonia in December 1877. Davies became its general manager in early 1878.
- ANSONIA CLOCK CO. – New York, N. Y., 1878 – Brooklyn, 1878-1929 – In 1878, a new factory was built in Brooklyn, while Bristol continued its activities until 1883. The new factory will begin production in 1879. Unfortunately, a fire destroyed it in February 1880. A new factory was built in 1881, and all production was concentrated there in 1883. In the following years, Ansonia expanded its range of models and, in 1894, added watches. Ansonia opened many sales agencies around the world and exported many models. By 1914 it had offices in New York, Chicago, and London, as well as in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China, India, and 18 other countries. Unfortunately, the First World War and the Great Depression weakened the company, and it was placed under the authority of a Creditor Committee in 1929. The Amtorg Trading Corporation (Amerikanskaya Torgovlya, Russian: Амторг) bought all the equipment and parts of the American manufacture of Ansonia and shipped everything by boat to Russia, thus putting an end to Ansonia’s activities on American soil, the company’s buildings remaining under the Creditor Committee. This transaction will allow the USSR to develop its clock industry. Nevertheless, the Ansonia trademark will remain in the United States under the ownership of Mr. E. Cantelo White, president of Ansonia Clock Co., later associated with the Tork Clock Company.
- ALDEN A. ATKINS (1810-1893) AND COMPANY -> ATKINS & ALLEN – Bristol, Conn., 1837-1846
- ATKINS (Irenus – 1792-1882) AND DOWNS, 1831-1832
- ATKINS CLOCK CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1845-1875
ATLANTIC CLOCK CO.
Atlantic Clock & Co., a manufacturer of self-winding electric clocks and synchronous clocks established in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1913 and incorporated in 1915 by Frederick Atkinson, closed in 1939.
ATTLEBORO CLOCK CO.
Attleboro Clock Co. is not a clock manufacturer but a reseller of clocks manufactured by major manufacturers such as Waterbury, Sessions, Ingraham, and Ansonia. Its models range from oak kitchen clocks, black mantle clocks, parlor clocks, and even alarm clocks and pocket watches. Some of their clock models were similar to the original manufacturer but had a label and often a different name. It was in business from 1890 to 1915 in Attleboro, Massachusetts.
BAIRD CLOCK CO.
Edward Payson Baird (1860-1929) established his first clock factory in Montreal, Quebec in 1887, under the name Electro-Mechanical Clock Co. in 1887-1888, then Edward P. Baird & Co. and Clock Manufacturers in 1888-1890, and occasionally Baird Clock Manufacturing Co. He had sales offices in Montreal and New York. His specialty was 8-shaped papier-mâché advertising clocks, equipped with movements Seth Thomas which only gave time. In 1890, he decided to move production to New York State, specifically to Plattsburgh, under Baird Clock Co., where the manufactured clocks would lose their round shape in favor of a square. In 1897, he moved to Evanston, Illinois, as Baird Manufacturing Co., where he manufactured a few wooden advertising clocks with metal doors and, soon after, telephone equipment and locks only.
BALDWIN & STORRS
- JEDIDIAH BALDWIN (& SAMUEL STILES) CLOCK AND WATCHMAKING – REPAIRING – Northampton, Mass., 1791-1793
- STILES AND STORRS – New York, 1792
- BALDWIN & STORRS – Northhampton, Mass., 1792-1794
- STORRS & COOK – 1827-1833
BALL WATCH COMPANY
- BANGOR ELECTRIC CLOCK CO. – Bangor, Maine, 1897-1901
- NATIONAL ELECTRIC CLOCK CO. – Bangor, Maine, 1901-1903
- NEW ENGLAND ELECTRIC CLOCK CO. – Bangor, Maine, 1905-1910
- BARTHOLOMEW, E. & G. – Bristol, Conn., c. 1820
- BARTHOLOMEW, E.L.I. – Bristol, Conn, 1828-1832
- BARTHOLOMEW & BARNES – Bristol, Conn, 1833-1836
- BARTHOLOMEW, GEORGES W. – Bristol, Conn., 1833-1845
BENEDICT & BURNHAM MANUFACTURING CO.
– Waterbury, Conn., 1850-1857
- JOHN BIGELOW – CO. – Boston, Mass., 1824-1830
- BIGELOW BROS. CO. – Boston, Mass., 1830-1845
- BIGELOW BROS. KENNARD – Boston, Mass., 1845-1863
- BIGELOW, KENNARD – CO. – Boston, Mass., 1863-1972
- BIRGE (JOHN – 1785-1862) & IVES – Bristol, Conn., 1830-1833
- BIRGE AND CASE – Bristol, Conn., 1834-1835
- BIRGE, GILBERT AND CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1835-1837
- BIRGE, MALLORY – CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1837-1843
- BIRGE – FULLER – Bristol, Conn., 1844-1847
- BIRGE PECK & CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1848-1859 – sold to Welch, Spring, and Co., and absorbed by E. N. Welch in 1884
BISHOP and BRADLEY
– Watertown & Plymouth, Conn., 1823-1830
- BLODGETT BROS. CO. – Boston, Mass., 1879-1902: the brothers Georges and Aaron created in 1879 a company that manufactured battery-electric clocks equipped with movements of the Standard Electric Time Co., then from 1901, movements of the Self-Winding Clock Co.
- BLODGETT (THE) CLOCK CO. – Boston, Mass., 1902-1908: in 1902, the company’s name became The Blodgett Clock Co. under the direction of Georges. It obtained a 1909 patent for a Master Electric Battery clock capable of transmitting time to auxiliary clocks. In 1909, the Industrial Instrument Company, Foxborough, Mass, bought it.
- In the meantime, Aaron Blodgett continued his trade in Boston, Mass, until 1911, then sold to Standard Electric Time. Then he continued his own business until 1914.
- BOARDMAN – DUNBAR – Bristol, Conn., 1810-1812
- BOARDMAN CHAUNCEY (1789-1857) – Bristol, Conn. 1812-1832: he began making wooden movements in Bristol, Connecticut, from 1813 to 1823.
- BOARDMAN & WELLS – Bristol, Conn., 1832-1843 – Wells leaves, bankrupt in 1850.
BOSTON CLOCK CO.
– Chelsea, Mass., 1884-1894, sold to Ansonia Clock Co. Brooklyn, New York
BOSTON WATCH CO. (1853-1859)
Under the name Boston Watch Co., a new factory was built in Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1854. A few thousand watches were produced signed “Dennison, Howard & Davis,” “C. T. Parker,” and “P. S. Bartlett.” Boston Watch Co. suffered financial difficulties and was reorganized several times. In 1857, it was sold at auction to Royal E. Robbins. The watch business took the name of Tracy, Baker & Co., and the same year was changed to Appleton, Tracy & Co. They produced about 9,000 watches named Appleton, Tracy & Co., and C. T. Parker movements were reintroduced on the market. At the beginning of 1859, Appleton, Tracy & Co. merged with a company called Waltham Improvement Co. to form American Watch Company.
- BRADLEY, HATCH AND CO. – Meriden, Conn., 1852-1854
- BRADLEY AND HUBBARD MANUFACTURING CO. – Meriden, Conn., 1854-1875
- BRADLEY (THE) – HUBBARD MANUFACTURING CO. – Meriden, Conn., 1875-1940 – sold to Charles Parker
- BRADLEY & HUBBARD DIVISION, PARKER CLOCK CO. – Meriden, Conn., 1940-1976
Adam Brandt (1763-1804) of Hanover, Pennsylvania, then New Hanover, made floor clocks with brass and later white metal dials equipped with 30-hour or eight-day movements.
BRISTOL BRASS & CLOCK CO.
On April 3, 1850, a group of 16 Bristol businessmen, including Israel Holmes of Waterbury and Elisha Welch of Bristol, in a meeting at the Bristol Foster Tavern, founded a company to manufacture brass, wire, tubes, etc. products for clockmaking and automobiles, and later in 1868, burners and oil lamps. Initially, it also made clock movements. In 1880, it was Bristol’s largest employer with 375 employees. It changed its name in 1902 to Bristol Brass Company, then in 1818 to Bristol Brass Corporation until its insolvency closure on June 27, 1980.
BULOVA WATCH CO., INC.
Joseph E. Bulova founded Bulova Watch Co. New York in 1874. In 1919, Bulova opened a factory in Bienne, Switzerland. In 2008, Citizen Japan acquired Bulova.
BUNDY MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Harlow Le Grand Bundy (1856-1916) created the Bundy Manufacturing Company in 1888 in Binghamton, New York, and incorporated it in 1889. He manufactured his brother Willard’s (1845-1907) invention, a key recorder that registers the beginning and ending time of an hourly-paid employee at a place of business. Bundy is a first-time recording company. In 1896, George Winthrop Fairchild (1854-1924), a friend of Harlow N. Bundy, joined the Bundy Company as an investor and director.
BURR & CHITTENDEN
– Lexington, Mass.,1831-1857
BURROUGHS CLOCK CO.
– Winsted, Conn.
(THE) CALCULAGRAPH CO.
Henry Abbott (1850-1943) created the Calculagraph Co. in New York to manufacture and market its new invention, the Calculagraph, a clock timer capable of calculating and printing elapsed times, for which Abbott obtained several patents, 583,320 (May 25, 1897 – Calculagraph), RE13597, 1091786 (March 31, 1914 – Card Gate), 1534755 (April 21, 1925 – Fasteners for Ink Ribbons), 1582651 (April 27, 1926 – Device for automatically shifting the direction of feed of an ink ribbon in printing machines), and registered trademarks 95597 and 99080. The first circular Calculagraphs were installed in pool halls. From 1894, a specific model, the rectangular no 31, became immensely popular among telephone companies to calculate, for example, the duration of long-distance or toll calls. AT&T was the first to implement it. The Calculagraph had also been used for many other applications such as employee time clock, rentals, billing, etc. since it was possible to configure it to print hours and minutes, minutes, and seconds, with or without date, even dollars and cents, especially useful in pool halls, etc. The mechanical Calculagraph was fitted with the double-barrel Seth Thomas #10 movement. Later, it was equipped with an electrical 20- or 110-volts movement. The company was established in New York, moved to Harrison, N. J., and East-Hanover, N. J., but ceased manufacturing Calculagraphs after World War II. Control Products, Inc., created in 1946, seemed to succeed.
CHELSEA CLOCK CO.
– Chelsea, Mass., 1897-1904
(THE) CINCINNATI TIME RECORDER CO.
The Cincinnati Time Recorder Co. was created in 1896 in Cincinnati, Ohio with investment money from James Gamble, one of the founders of Proctor and Gamble. Gamble saw an opportunity to develop the market for the growing demand for time recorder clocks. The company acquired Landis Program Clock Co. in 1937 and created Cincinnati-Landis Electric Time Systems and Equipment as a division. It was a successful and leading company in the time recorder sector. In 1991, AMANO, a company founded in 1932 to manufacture the first time recorder in Japan, acquired Cincinnati Time Recorder Co. Amano Time and Security is still a leader in time systems.
COLONIAL MANUFACTURING CO.
– Zeeland, Penn., 1899-1986
DARCHE ELECTRIC CLOCK CO.
– Chicago, Ill., 1889-1929
- NEWMAN CLOCK CO. – Chicago, Ill., 1896-1909
- CHICAGO WATCHMAN’S CLOCK WORKS – Chicago, Ill., 1910-1923
- CHICAGO WATCH CLOCK, DIV. OF GREAT LAKES INDUSTRIES – Chicago, Ill., 1923-1958 – sold to DETEX
- NEWMAN WATCH CLOCK CORP. – Chicago, Ill., 1923 + ECO CLOCK = DETEX
- DETEX WATCH CLOCK CORPORATION – Chicago, Ill., 1923-1963
- DETEX CORPORATION – Chicago, 1964-1990
- DETEX CORPORATION – New Braunfels, TX, 1990-….
DEY PATENTS CO. -> DEY TIME REGISTER CO.
In 1888, Dr. Alexander Dey invented the dial time recorder. With relatives, he created Dey Patents Co., in 1893 Syracuse, New York, later renamed Dey Time Register Co. I.T.R. bought it in 1907. The Howard Brothers of Liverpool, England, acted as agents for Dey Patents in 1896, and in 1898, “agreed with the Deys to purchase the past, present, and future benefits of the Dey timekeeping inventions for certain countries named, including the Australian colonies. The Howard Brothers manufactured and sold the Dey Time Register in the U.K.” (Grace’s Guide To British Industrial History). They registered the name in 1907 for the U.K.
DUNNING & CURTIS
– Concord, Mass., 1812-1817
DYER, WADSWORTH AND CO.
– Augusta, Georgia, 1838-1843
ECO (THE) MAGNETO CLOCK CO.
ECO CLOCK CO.
EDWARDS AND COMPANY -> EDWARDS AND COMPANY, INC. -> EDWARDS SIGNALING
Robert Edwards and David Rousseau created a battery-operated gas-fixture igniters company in Norwalk, Connecticut, in 1872. Adam Lungen replaced Rousseau as a partner the next year. Initially, the company was located in the basement of the Lungen family, from which they moved out in 1880 to a new three-story building. The company developed an electric doorbell and burglar alarm system. In 1886, they added electric-assisted wound clocks and perfected their burglar alarm systems and igniters. In 1896, the company specialized in protection equipment and signaling systems. They installed the Bell at the New York Stock Exchange in 1903, an emergency signaling system in the Holand Tunnel of New York in 1927, electrical emergency devices in the White House, a watchman’s tour, sprinklers, and a fire alarm system in the New York Rockefeller Center. In 1956, Edwards and Company opened a factory in Pittsfield, Maine, to manufacture mechanical and electrical clocks, signaling systems, and devices. In 1962, it became the operation outfit of General Signal Corporation and later became an incorporated company. In 1967, Edwards provided Expo ’67 with 77 fire alarm systems, and in 1971, the J.F.K. Center for the Performing Arts. As for clocks, the Edwards Synchromatic Clock is well-known. The clock had two motors, one to run the clock normally and another that may run 10-time faster to adjust it remotely. In 2005, Edwards was bought by General Electric and became part of G.E. Security, which United Technologies Corporation acquired in 2010. It is now a member of the Carrier Group as Edwards Signaling
E. & J. SWIGART CO. (THE)
– Cincinnati, Ohio, 1907…
E. C. BREWSTER & S.O.N. CO.
– Bristol, Conn., 1855-? s.
ELECTRO CLOCK CO.
– Baltimore, MD, 1909-1912
- NATIONAL WATCH CO. – Downers Grove, Illinois, 1864-1874
- ELGIN NATIONAL WATCH CO. – Downers Grove, Illinois, 1864-1968
- ELGIN NATIONAL INDUSTRIES, INC. – Downers Grove, Illinois, 1968-2007
- BRADLEY TIME CORP., Div. of Elgin – Downers Grove, Illinois, 1972-1987
- ELGIN NATIONAL INDUSTRIES, Sub-div. of ENI HOLDINGS, Inc., 2007…
- AMERICAN (THE) ELECTRICAL NOVELTY AND MANUFACTURING CO. – 304-308 Hudson St., New York, 1898-1904
- KEYLESS CLOCK CO. – 304-308 Hudson St., New York, 1902-1904
- AMERICAN (THE) EVER READY CLOCK CO. – 1906, New York, bought 1/2 of American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Co.
FISCHER ELECTRIC CLOCK CO.
– New York, c. 1895-1898
FOLLETT TIME RECORDING
– Newark, N.J., c. 1898-c. 1920
FISCHER ELECTRIC CLOCK CO.
– New York, v. 1895-1898
FRANK LANDIS OF WAYNESBORO PA (1893-1913) -> LANDIS ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CO. (1913-1931) -> LANDIS PROGRAM CLOCK CO. (1931-1937) -> CINCINNATI-LANDIS ELECTRIC TIME SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT (1937-1991)
Frank Landis was an inventor who specialized in mechanics and tool making. He designed and patented several engines for farm work and received awards. Landis also created the Electric Time and Program Clock System for Schools for the Fred Frick company he bought with his son Mark in 1910. With his son, he created the Landis Engineering and Manufacturing Co. in 1913, a manufacturer of clocks and shock absorbers for automobiles that he had invented. The Landis Program Clock Co., a division of Landis Engineering, was created in 1931. The Cincinnati Time Recorder Co. bought the division in 1937 to form Cincinnati-Landis Electric Time Systems and Equipment.
FRANKLIN CLOCK CO.
– Philadelphia, Pa, 1931-1962
FRED FRICK WAYNESBORO, PA (1894-1901) -> FRED FRICK CLOCK COMPANY – Pa., 1901-1910
Fred Frick (1863-1934) filed his first program clock in 1894 and his second the following year, improving his first design by separating the program disc from the dial. His clocks had Howard, Seth Thomas, and Waterbury movements. In 1899 he bought the MacCaskey Clock Co. In 1901, he incorporated the Fred Frick Clock Company in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. In 1910 he sold it to Frank and Mark Landis. From 1901 to 1908, Frank Landis had already worked with Frick patents.
GEORGE A. JONES (THE) CLOCK CO.
– Bristol, Conn., 1864-1874; New York, N.Y., 1863-1872
GILBERT, William L. (1806-1890)
- MARSH, GILBERT AND CO. – Bristol and Farmington, Conn., 1828-1834
- BIRGE, GILBERT AND CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1835-1837
- JEROME, GRANT, GILBERT AND CO. – Bristol, Conn. 1839-1840
- CLARKE, GILBERT AND CO. – Winsted, Conn., 1841-1845
- W. L. GILBERT – CO. – Winsted, Conn., 1845-1848
- GILBERT AND CLARKE. – Winsted, Conn., 1848-1851
- W. L. GILBERT – CO. – Winsted, Conn., 1851-1866
- GILBERT (THE) MANUFACTURING CO. – Winsted, Conn., 1866-1871
- THE WILLIAM L. GILBERT CLOCK CO. – Winsted, Conn., 1871-1934
- WILLIAM L. GILBERT CLOCK CORPORATION – Winsted, Conn., 1934-1957
- GENERAL-GILBERT CORPORATION, Div. General Computing Machines, Co. – Winsted, Conn., 1957-1964 – purchased then by Spartus Corp., Louisville, Miss. Chicago, Ill.
GRALAB (DIMCO – GRAY CO.)
– Dayton, Ohio
- GREGORY CLOCK CO. – Chicago, 1891-1896
- SEMPIRE CLOCK CO. – St. Louis, Missouri, 1897-1908 – founded by F. L. Gregory
HADDON PRODUCTS, INC.
Haddon produced clocks like the famous Jefferson but of inferior quality in Chicago. Illinois, from 1953 to 1963.
- ADAMS & PERRY WATCH MANUFACTURING CO. – Lancaster, Pa., 1874-1876: John C. Adams (1834-?), a businessman, and E. H. Perry, a watch designer, founded Adams & Perry Watch Manufacturing Company in 1874. The production of watch movements began in 1875, and the first watches, based on a model by Ezra F. Bowman, in 1876. The movements were difficult to market because they were too big. Lack of capital necessitated the reorganization of the company.
- THE LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA, WATCH CO. – Lancaster, Pa., 1877: With a $225 000 $ investment from the Lancaster community, Adams & Perry Watch Co. became Lancaster Pennsylvania Watch Co. Its main goal was to finish the production of the Adams & Perry Watch Co. Soon, it failed.
- THE LANCASTER WATCH CO., INC. – Lancaster, Pa., 1878: The company was reorganized in 1878 as The Lancaster Watch Co. produced a lower-end watch with a stem-wind device first by Mosely and Todd. In 1880, the company was profitable, doubled its capital the following year, and in 1882, could produce 20 000 watches in four models, Keystone, Melrose, Fulton, and Franklin. It was incorporated in 1883 as The Lancaster Watch Co., Inc. when it produced more than 30 models of watches, too many to survive without debts.
- KEYSTONE WATCH CO., – Lancaster, Pa., 1884-1886: In 1884, Lancaster Watch was reorganized as Keystone Watch Co., but it failed again.
- KEYSTONE STANDARD WATCH AND CO. –1886-1890: In 1886, Abram Bitner, former manager of Lancaster Pennsylvania Watch, took over the management under Keystone Standard Watch Co.
- NEW YORK STANDARD WATCH CO. – New York, 1885-1903 – sold to Keystone Watch Case Co.
- E. HOWARD WATCH CO. – Boston, Mass., 1902-1903 – Sold to Keystone Watch Case Co.)
- HAMILTON & ADAMS – Elmira, New York, 1837-1842, merged with AURORA
- AURORA WATCH CO. – Aurora, Ill., 1885-1892, becomes
- HAMILTON WATCH CO. CAR CLOCK – Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1892-1959
- HAMILTON WATCH CO. bought the name HOWARD in 1927
- HAMILTON WATCH bought ILLINOIS WATCH CO. in 1927, then reorganized with Sangamo Electric Co. in 1928 and formed Hamilton Sagamo Corp.
- HAMILTON SANGAMO CORP. merged in 1931 with Seth Thomas and others to GENERAL TIME INSTRUMENTS CORP.
HAMMOND CLOCK CO.
Hammond Clock from Chicago, Illinois, started in 1928 and became Hammond Instrument Company but closed its doors in 1941.
HANSEN MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Hansen Manufacturing Co. from Princeton produced from 1906 to 1935 the Hansen Programmed Clocks. The company was sold to Arvid N. Montgomery, electrical engineer of Owensville, Indiana, who integrated it with his company, Montgomery Time Systems..
HARTFORD CLOCK CO.
– Hartford, Conn., c. 1916-?
H.C. THOMPSON CLOCK CO.
– Bristol, Connecticut, 1903-?
- HERMLE BLACK FOREST CLOCKS – Amherst, Virginia, 1977-2011 – name change in 2011
- HERMLE NORTH AMERICA – Amherst, Virginia, 2011…
HERSCHEDE (THE) HALL CLOCK CO.
The Herschede was founded in 1873 in Cincinnati, Ohio by Frank Herschede. It eventually moved to Starkville, Missouri. It was in business until 1984.
HOADLEY, Silas (1786-1870)
HOROLOVAR CO. – U.S.A.
HOTCHKISS AND BENEDICT
– Auburn, New York, ca. 1835.
HOWARD, Edward (1813-1904) – LACROSSE
- HOWARD & DAVIS – Boston, Mass., 1842-1843: manufacture of high-grade wall clocks, sewing machines, precision balances, and fire engines.
- STEPHENSON, HOWARD & DAVIS – Boston, Mass., 1843-1857: With Luther Stephenson’s arrival, they added tower clock manufacturing. Davis left the company in 1857, and the partnership was dissolved.
- HOWARD & RICE – Boston, Mass., 1857-1858:
- E. HOWARD & COMPANY – Roxbury, Mass., 1857-1861: manufacturer of watches.
- E. HOWARD WATCH & CLOCK COMPANY, Boston, Mass., 1861-1863: the company didn’t last long and failed in 1863.
- E. HOWARD CLOCK & WATCH COMPANY, Boston, Mass., 1863-1934: in 1881, Howard sold his shares and retired. New management took place. It manufactures in Roxbury, Mass., mainly to order, many weight-driven wall timepieces and regulators until 1834.
- HOWARD CLOCK PRODUCTS, Waltham, Mass. (1934-1975): in 1934, the company’s name and its location changed. Gear cutting kept the company afloat with government contracts, but clocks were less successful. In 1940, the company stopped the production of self-winding master clocks, in 1940, small clocks, in 1956, secondary clocks, and in 1964, tower clocks.
- HOWARD CLOCK PRODUCTS, Waltham, Mass. (1975-1977): a new manager came in, Dana J. Blackwell, who restarted the production of their more popular clocks with the same quality of craftsmanship. In 1977, the owners sold the company, but the new one fired the experienced managers and dilapidated the company’s funds. In 1980, bankruptcy was inevitable. The owner tried to blow up the company and was arrested but never served time in jail. The Federal Government took over, settled the bankruptcy, and sold the clock business to private investors who continued manufacturing quality Howard clocks.
- HOWARD DAVIS & DENNISON, Roxbury, Mass., 1850
- AMERICAN HOROLOGE CO. – Roxbury, Mass., 1851
- THE WARREN MANUFACTURING CO. – Roxbury, Mass., 1851-1853
- BOSTON WATCH CO. – Roxbury, Mass., 1853-1857
- E. HOWARD & CO. – Roxbury, Mass., 1858-1861
- LACROSSE (THE) CLOCK CO. – La Crosse, WI, bought the name E. Howard and Co. in 1994.
- HERMAN MILLER CLOCK CO., Zeeland, Michigan, 1926-1937 – Howard C. Miller founded the company in 1926 as a division of his father Herman’s office furniture manufacturer. He then built wall and mantle chiming clocks until 1937.
- HOWARD MILLER CLOCK CO. – Zeeland, Michigan, 1937… – In 1937, the division became a company, Howard Miller Clock, Co., while the father continued to manufacture office furniture under his name.
- KIENINGER Co., Germany – Howard Miller Clock Co., acquired in 1993, Kieninger Co., a German clock manufacturer, will specialize in clock movements production.
- RIDGEWAY – Howard Miller Clock Co. acquired Ridgeway Furniture Co. from Pulaski Furniture Corp. in 2004, moved the clock manufacturing to Zeeland, Michigan, in 2005, and closed it down in 2007.
HUBLEY MANUFACTURING CO.
– Lancaster, Penn., 1894-1965
IMPERIAL (THE) CLOCK CO.
Frank, Joseph, and Auguste Feraud had a jewelry store in Granite City, Illinois, in 1904. They also offered to repair watches and clocks. They even built regulators for their store and others too. Frank Feraud had expertise in battery clocks. He perfected the winding mechanism and obtained a patent. In 1909, he created The Imperial Clock Co. with his brothers to exploit his patent. Later on, it was incorporated by Frank and two other partners who acquired Sempire Clock Company in 1910. But for an unknown reason, the company was soon sold, and the Feraud brothers were no longer involved in the clock business. The company then moved to St Louis, Missouri, from 1911 till 1913. At one point, there was an attempt to build a factory in Rockport, Missouri, but it failed. So it went back in 1918 to St Louis, where it was reorganized under a large jewel and clock store owned by George A. Able, the general manager, and A. W. Fowler, who acted as plant manager. It produced direct current electric clocks and, later on, alternate current with synchronous motor clocks. In 1920, the company became insolvent and was acquired by Fowler in 1923, who moved it to Collinsville, Illinois. It produced battery clocks until 1935 and later chime clocks with a synchronous motor patented by Fowler. From 1936 to 1957, the company was located in Highland, Illinois. After 1960, nobody knew what happened to the company.
INGRAHAM, Elias (1805-1885)
- INGRAHAM – BARTHOLOMEW – Bristol, Conn., 1831-1832 – sold to J. C. Brown
- INGRAHAM – GOODRICH – Bristol, Conn., 1832-1833
- ELIAS INGRAHAM – Bristol, Conn., 1835-1840
- BREWSTER & INGRAHAM – Bristol, Conn., 1844-1852
- E. & A. INGRAHAM COMPANY – Bristol, Conn., 1852-1856
- ELIAS INGRAHAM AND COMPANY – Bristol, Conn., 1857-1861
- E. INGRAHAM & COMPANY – Bristol, Conn., 1861-1884
- THE E. INGRAHAM & COMPANY – Bristol, Conn., 1881-1884
- THE E. INGRAHAM COMPANY – Bristol, Conn., 1884-1967 – Expansion in Toronto, Ont., Elizabeth Town, Ky-Laurinburg, NC, 1941-1959
- INGRAHAM INDUSTRIES, Division of McGraw-Edison Penn. – Laurinburg, N.C. 1967-1985
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP. (I.B.M.)
- WILLARD AND FRICK MANUFACTURING CO. – Rochester, N.Y., 1894-1911, acquired by International Time Recording Co. 1911.
- INTERNATIONAL TIME RECORDING CO. – New York, N.Y., founded in 1900 following the acquisition of Bundy Manufacturing Company, the first company to build Time Recorder.
- COMPUTING – TABULATING-RECORDING CO. – Endicott, N.Y., 1901-1924, became I.B.M. in 1924.
- INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP. (I.B.M.) – Endicott, New York, 1924.
INTERNATIONAL TIME RECORDING COMPANY
In 1900, George Winthrop Fairchild, director of Bundy Manufacturing Co., created in 1900, in Jersey City, New Jersey, a selling agency for International Time Recording Company (I.T.R.), The Standard Time Stamp Company, and Willard and Frick Mfg. In 1901, the incorporation moved to Binghamton, New York, and I.T.R. acquired the Chicago Time-register Co., the manufacturer of the first autograph recorder. In 1906, I.T.R. moved to Endicott, New York, next to the Bundy Manufacturing Co., in a new manufacturing plant. In 1907, I.T.R. acquired Dey Time Register Co. The following year, I.T.R. bought Syracuse Time Recorder Company, a manufacturer of dial recorders. In 1912, the Howard Brothers incorporated a company in Britain as International Time Recording Co. to represent the interests of the American parent of a similar name. The company took over the business of selling Dey Time Registers. That British company was liquidated in 1914. The American company was merged in 1912 with Bundy Manufacturing Co., the Tabulating Machine Company, and the Computing Scale Company under the newly formed holding Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C.T.R.).
ITHACA (THE) CALENDAR CLOCK CO.
– Ithaca, N.Y., 1865-1917
- IVES C. – L. C. – 1830-1838
- CHAUNCEY IVES – Bristol, Conn.1787-1857
- IVES JOSEPH (1782-1862) – Bristol, Connecticut, 1811-1825; New York, N.Y., 1825-1830
- IVES LAWSON – 1839-1843
- IVES & LEWIS – 1820-?
JAMES REMINDO CLOCK COMPANY
James Remindo wanted to build a clock capable of meeting clients’ schedules. In Oakland, California, in 1933, he built a factory that produced the James Remindo Clock until 1960, then sold the company to Clifford Miller, who moved the production to Minden, Nevada. The company closed down in 1987.
- JEFFERSON ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO. – Chicago, Ill.,1915-1928 – merged with Chicago Fuse Manufacturing Co.
- CHICAGO-JEFFERSON FUSE & ELECTRIC CO. – Chicago, Ill., 1928-1931
- JEFFERSON ELECTRIC CO. – Bellwood, Ill. & Fall River, Mass., 1931-1967
- JEFFERSON ELECTRIC, DIV. OF LITTON INDUSTRIES – Bellwood, Ill. & Fall River, Mass., 1967-1984
- JEFFERSON ELECTRIC, DIV. OF MAGNETEK, INC. – Downers Grove, Ill. and Athens, AL., 1984-1991
JENNINGS BROTHERS MANUFACTURING CO.
– Bridgeport, Conn., 1890-?
- CHAUNCEY JEROME (1793-1868) – Plymouth, Conn., 1816-1822
- JEROMES & CO. L.T.D. – Bristol, Conn., 1822-1844, acquired by New Haven Clock Co. in 1855
- JEROMES & DARROW – Bristol, Conn., 1824-1833
- CHAUNCEY JEROME – New Haven, Conn., 1845-1854, acquired by par New Haven
- JEROME MANUFACTURING CO. – New Haven, Conn., 1850-1853, became New Haven Clock Co.
JOHN WANNAMAKER & CO.
– Philadelphia, Penn., 1875-?
JONATHAN CLARK BROWN
– Forestville, Connecticut, 1832-1858.
JUVET AND CO. -> JUVET TIME GLOBE CO.
Louis Paul Juvet, born in Switzerland in 1838, came to the U.S.A. in 1866. With partners James Arkell and A. G. Richmond, he founded in Canajoharie, New York, Juvet & Co., renamed Juvet Time Globe Co. Juvet obtained in 1867 two patents for “Improvement in Time Globe” and many others. His company was created to manufacture his patented clocks. Production started in 1879. Rood and Norton, Bristol, Connecticut, made the movements. The manufacturer’s building went on fire on October 18, 1886. Juvet’s globe clocks received many prizes worldwide. Louis Juvet died in 1930.
K & S SALES CO.
KANDIS-LANDIS (THE) CORPORATION
– Chicago, 1921-1929
KEEBLER, August C.
- KEEBLER CLOCK CO. – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, before 1929: distributor of Novelty Clocks manufactured for them by LUX.
- AUGUST C. KEEBLER CLOCK CO. – Chicago, Illinois, 1929-1939: distributed over 1 million LUX-made clocks.
- NEW YORK STANDARD WATCH CO. – New York, 1885-1903 – sold to Keystone Watch Case Co.
- E. HOWARD WATCH CO. – Boston, Mass., 1902-1903 – sold to Keystone Watch Case Co.
- KEYSTONE WATCH CASE CO. – Boston, Mass., 1903-1927 – bought U.S. Watch and New York Standard Watch Co. in 1903.
KROEBER, Florence (1840-1911)
- OWEN AND CLARK CLOCK STORE – New York City, N.Y., 18?? -1861
- GEORGE B. OWEN – Winsted, Conn., 1861-1864
- F. KROEBER – New York, N. Y., 1865-1887
- MUELLER & KROEBER – New York, NY, 1868-1869
- F. KROEBER CLOCK CO. – New York, NY, 1887-1899
- F. KROEBER & CO. – New York, NY, 1899-1904
LANDIS ENGINEERING AND MFG. CO. (1910-1937)
Frank and Mark Landis acquired Fred Frick Clock Co. in 1910. Mark was the Chief Engineer for Landis Program Time Clock Co. In 1913, they founded Landis Engineering and Manufacturing Co. in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, to sell the Program Time Clock. It lasted until 1937 when it was sold to Cincinnati Time Recorder Co.
LAWSON CLOCK CO.
– Los Angeles, CA, 1930-c. 1941
L. F. CARTER & W. W.
– Bristol, Conn., 1862-1868
LINDEN™ of Cuckoo Clock M.F.G. CO.
– New York, N.Y.
LUX AND KEEBLER
- LUX CLOCK MANUFACTURING CO. – Waterbury, Mass., 1914-1961
- ROBERTSHAW-FULTON (THE) CONTROLS CO. (LUX TIME DIV) – 1961
- A. C. KEEBLER CO. – Chicago, Ill., 1931, becomes the only retailer of LUX clocks.
MACOMB CALENDAR CLOCK CO.
– Macomb III, 1882-1883
MANNING, BOWMAN & CO.
Manning, Bowman & Co. produced clocks from the late 1920s to the early 1930s in Meriden, Connecticut.
– 20th c.
MARSH WILLIAMS AND CO.
– Dayton, Ohio, 1832-?
MASSON & SULLIVAN
– West Yarmouth, Mass.
– St Charles, Mo., 1994…
MASTERCRAFTERS CLOCK AND RADIO CO.
– Chicago, Ill., 1948-1980
McCASKEY, John L.
John Mc Caskey, a Scotsman, was hired in 1888 as a principal associate at Waynesboro High School, Pennsylvania. He wanted to experiment with the possibility of controlling the time bells of the different school classes from his office. Moreover, that year, he exhibited in the window of a store of Abraham and Amos Frick his project, the “Kosmic Clock.” The following year, he applied for a patent for an electric clock program on a disk placed on the dial that allows the bells of the classes to be ringed. In 1890, he filed another patent to perfect his system and created the Electrical Signal Clock Company. His clocks with Seth Thomas or Waterbury movements were of the school clock style. He had given them names: Autocrat, Hazel, and Empress. They were made in Waynesboro. However, his clocks had a flaw that made them not very accurate. In 1893, McCaskey sold machinery, inventory, and rights to the Landis brothers’ company, the Geiser Co., and other Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, partners.
- McCLINTOCK-LOOMIS CO. – Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1908-1917
- O. B. McCLINTOCK CO. – Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1917-1949
MITCHELL & ATKINS -> MITCHELL, ATKINS AND CO.
MITCHELL VANCE & CO.
– New York, N.Y., 1860-1880
MUNROE, Daniel (1775-1859) & Nathaniel (1777-1861)
- DANIEL MUNROE & CO. – Concord, Mass., 1798-1804
- NATHANIEL MUNROE – Concord, Mass., 1798-804; Norfolk, Virginia, 1804-1807; Concord, Mass., 1807-1808
- MUNROE & WHITING – Baltimore, Maryland, 1808-1817
- MUNROE AND HOLMAN – Baltimore, Maryland, 1826-1828
- NATHANIEL MUNROE – Baltimore, Maryland, 1829-1831
NATIONAL CALENDAR CLOCK CO.
– New Haven, Conn.
NATIONAL SELF-WINDING CLOCK CO.
– Champaign, Illinois, 1896-1901; Bristol, Conn., 1902-1905; Champaign, Ill. 1905-1908; Urbana, Ill. 1908-1912.
NATIONAL TIME AND SIGNAL
– Wixom, Michigan, 1877…
NEW ENGLAND CLOCK CO.
This New England Clock existed in the 1840s in New Haven, Connecticut. It produced OG clocks with painted dials equipped with 30-hour movements.
NEW ENGLAND CLOCK CO.
Located in Bristol, Connecticut, in 1851, the New England Clock built clocks figured in Jerome and Co. 1852 catalog. They also sold small shelf clocks with their label name.
NEW ENGLAND CLOCK CO. -> THE NEW ENGLAND CLOCK CO.
This Bristol, Connecticut clock company was created in 1958 by William K. Sessions, the grandson of the Sessions Clock Co. founder. It manufactured contemporary-style clocks, then moved to colonial-style timepieces with floral decor. In 1962, a “The” was added to the name. It moved to Farmington, Connecticut in 1967 and became more of a clock assembler that they marketed. When William K. Sessions died in 1973, his wife, Phoebe Woodhouse Sessions continued the business. At her death in 1983, Phoebe’s son, David Sessions took over. In 1985, he made a large investment to improve the quality of fabrication of cases and started to make reproductions of traditional clocks fitted with German movements, until 2000 when it closed.
NEW HAVEN CLOCK CO. (1853-1946) -> NEW HAVEN AND WATCH CO. (1946-1956)
Hiram Camp (1811-1892) with other partners founded the New Haven Clock Co. in 1853 to provide movements for Jerome Manufacturing Co., the world’s largest clockmaking manufacturer at the time. But, Jerome when bankrupt in 1856, and New Haven found the money to buy it. In 1859, it merged with The American Clock Company but continued its operation under the New Haven Clock Co. name. The factory was burned down in 1866 but reconstructed. After the departure of Hiram Camp, the company suffered financial difficulties and went almost into bankruptcy in 1894. Three years later, it was reorganized. At the beginning of the 20th century, under the management of Walter Camp, the company became one of the world’s biggest clock manufacturers. In 1915, watches were added to its line of products. But in 1929, with the Great Depression going on, New Haven struggled again to stay afloat. The company produced war products during the Second World War, from 1943 to 1945. After the war, the production of clocks and watches resumed. Under new Swiss investors, the company name changed in 1946 to New Haven Clock and Watch Co. In 1956, it faced bankruptcy and was reorganized, but the foreign competition was so strong that it closed in 1960.
NO-KEY CLOCK CO. – MOUNTAIN STATE ELECTRIC CO.
– Wheeling, W. VA., 1909-1912
NORTH AMERICAN WATCH CO.
– New York, 1970-2007; Geneva, Switzerland, 2007…
- PARKER & WIPPLE – Meriden, Conn., 1795-1868
- PARKER & WIPPLE MANUFACTURING CO. – Meriden, Conn., 1868-1893
- PARKER CLOCK CO. – Meriden, Conn., 1893-1934
- PARK SHERMAN CO. – Springfield, Ill., 1931-1960
- PENNWOOD (THE) ELECTRIC CO. – Pittsburgh, PA, c. 1930-??
- PENNWOOD NUMECHRON. CO. – Pittsburgh, PA. ??-1972
PHINNEY-WALKER KEY-LESS CLOCK CO.
A. Perry founded the company with F. Phinney, and E. J. Hogerty. They named it Phinny-Walker Key-Less Clock Co. In the U. S. Patent and Trade Office, the company was listed as Phinny-Walker Co., New York, N. Y., 1910-1944, and as Phinny-Walker Co. Inc., 1923-1943. The company developed and designed clocks for domestic use and for automobiles and boats that were made by other clock manufacturers, like Seth Thomas. It patented a keyless winding system for automobile clocks.
PLYMOUTH CLOCK CO.
– Thomaston, Conn., 1930-1940: division of Seth Thomas.
POMEROY, Noah (1813-1896)
– Bristol, Conn., 1847-1878
POOLE MANUFACTURING CO., INC., Westport. Conn. (1923-1926) -> MORSE CHAIN CO. DIV., Ithaca, N.Y. (1926-1930); Weedsport, N.Y. (1937-1940)
Arthur C. Poole started a business in a small shop on Main Street in Westport, Connecticut. He started to build battery clocks for the Westport public schools. He obtained a patent in 1824 for a force gravity clock. Frank L. Morse invested in the Poole trade and moved the production to Ithaca, N. Y. in 1926 when Poole’s business became a division of Morse Chain Co. owned by Frank L. Morse. Poole obtained various patents over the years until his retirement in 1934, such as school clock systems, master-receptor clocks, telephones, etc. But his battery clocks have never been a great success even if they were manufactured through 1940, in part because of the arrival on the market of AC/DC electric clocks.
- PRENTISS CLOCK CO. – New York, v. 1870-c. 1880
- PRENTISS CALENDAR – TIME CO. – New York, N.Y., 1880-1897
- PRENTISS CLOCK IMPROVEMENT CO. – New York, N.Y., 1897- c. 1905
PRIME TIME INC.
– Scottdale, AZ, 1988…
RAY AND INGRAHAM
– Bristol, Conn., 1841–1844
REMPE MANUFACTURING CO.
– Danville, Pennsylvania, 1903-1905
RIDGEWAY CLOCKS CO.
The Gravely Furniture Company, founded in 1926 in Ridgeway, Virginia, began manufacturing grandfather clocks in 1960. In 1985, Gravely was sold to Pulaski Furniture Corporation, renamed Ridgeway Clocks, the name Gravely used before its acquisition by Pulaski. Ridgeway was sold to Howard Miller Clock Co. in 2004. It was moved to Zeeland, Michigan, the following year but continued its operations on its own. Ridgeway Clocks Co. is still in business as a Howard Miller Company.
RUSSELL & JONES CLOCK CO.
– Pittsfield, Mass., 1884-1893
SALEM CLOCK CO.
– Hartford, Conn.
SANGAMO ELECTRIC CO.
– Springfield, Ill., 1899-1931
SAWIN & DYER
– Boston, Mass., 1822-1828
SELF WINDING CLOCK CO.
– New York, N. Y., 1886-1970
SEMPIRE CLOCK COMPANY (1891-1910)
Frederick L. Gregory of Niagara Falls, New York, created in 1891 the Sempire Clock Company in St Louis, Missouri, to build and market what he called the Elechrometer Self-winding clocks. He obtained a patent for it in 1894. In 1897, the company was incorporated under the name of Ryan H. Rhorer and Frank E. Ryan. In 1910, it was bought by the Imperial Clock Co.
- SESSIONS CLOCK CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1903-1958: in 1903, E. N. WELCH became SESSIONS, sold to Consolidated Electronics Industries in 1958.
- CONSOLIDATED ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES – 1958-1969 – sells Sessions brand to United Metal Goods Manufacturing Company, Inc.
- UNITED METAL GOODS MANUFACTURING CO. – Brooklyn, N.Y., 1905-c. 1968
- SETH THOMAS & SILAS HOADLEY – Plymouth, Conn., 1810-1813: Seth Thomas and Silas Hoadley took back the Eli Terry activities in 1810 and managed them together until 1913. Then Seth Thomas quit the company, leaving Hoadley as the sole manager.
- SETH THOMAS – Plymouth Hollow, Conn., 1813-1853
- SETH THOMAS CLOCK CO. – Plymouth Hollow, Conn., 1853-1865
- SETH THOMAS CLOCK CO. – Thomaston, Conn., 1866-1930
- SETH THOMAS & SONS – Thomaston. Conn., 1866-1879 – merged with Seth Thomas Clock Co.
- PLYMOUTH – Thomaston, Conn., 1930-1940: division of Seth Thomas
- SETH THOMAS, DIV. OF THE GENERAL TIME INSTRUMENTS CO. – U.S.A., 1931-1949
- SETH THOMAS, DIV. OF THE GENERAL TIME CORP. – Norcross, GA, 1949-1970
- TALLEY INDUSTRIES – U.S.A., 1968-2001
- SETH THOMAS, DIV. OF TALLEY INDUSTRIES – AZ, U.S.A., 1970-2001
- SETH THOMAS, DIV. OF COLIBRI GROUP – U.S.A., 2001-2009
- SETH THOMAS, DIV. OF ALLIANCE TIME – U.S.A., 2009-?
- SIMPLEX TIME RECORDER CO. – Gardner, Mass., 1894-2000 – bought I.B.M. Time Equipment Division in 1958
- SIMPLEX, TYCO INTERNATIONAL DIV. – Princeton, N.J., 2000-2002, purchased Grinnell in1976 and formed Grinnell-Simplex in 2002
- GRINNELL-SIMPLEX – Boca-Raton, Fl., 2002-2016
- GRINNELL-SIMPLEX sold to JOHNSON CONTROLS, Cork, Ireland, 2016…
SOHM ELECTRIC CLOCK COMPANY
– Chicago, Illinois, 1912-1922
SOUTHERN (THE) CALENDAR CLOCK CO.
– St. Louis, Mo, 1875-1899
SPENCER, Francis (1799-1879) & Laurence (c. 1802-1847)
- SPENCER, HOTCHKISS AND CO. – Salem Bridge, Conn., c. 1822-1830
- SPENCER – WOOSTER – Salem Bridge, Conn., 1830-1845
STANDARD ELECTRIC TIME CO.
– Waterbury, Conn., 1884-1911 – Springfield, Mass., 1911-1981
STERLING CLOCK CO. OF NEW YORK
Sterling Clock moved to Meriden, Conn. c. 1926 to produce electric clocks. In 1931, “The Sterling Automobile Clock” was introduced to the market. Around 1933, the company was bought by Western Clock Co.
STEWART & CLARK MFG. CO.
This company from Chicago, Illinois, made automobile clocks under the Phinney-Walker Keyless Winding Co. Patent. equipped with Seth Thomas movements.
SYDNEY ADVERTISING CLOCK
– Sydney, New York
SYLVESTER & HYMAN CLARK
– Salem Bridge, Conn., 1820 – c. 1830
SYRACUSE TIME RECORDING COMPANY
Syracuse, New York, c. 1900-1908
Syracuse Time Recording Co. was a manufacturer of dial recorders. On January 30, 1902, Syracuse Time Recorder applied for a time recorder patent, invented by Arthur E Snow, and obtained it on April 12, 1904. I.T.R. acquired the company in 1908.
TAYLOR INSTRUMENTS CO.
– Rochester, New York, 1851…
- WARREN (THE) CLOCK CO. – Ashland, Conn., 1912-1926
- WARREN TELECHRON CO. – Ashland, Conn., 1926-1946
- REVERE (TELECHRON) Co., Div. Herschede Clock. Co. – Cincinnati, Ohio, 1927-1972
- GENERAL ELECTRIC TELECHRON – U.S.A., 1943-1979 – sold to Timex Corp.
- TELECHRON TIMER – Leland, North Carolina, 1928…
- ELECTRIC TIME CO. – Medfield, Mass. 1928…
TELE-VISION CLOCK CORPORATION OF AMERICA
– Pennsylvania, 1950 – Electric novelty clocks.
TERHUNE AND EDWARDS CLOCK CO.
Established at 48 Cortland St., Chicago, Ill., c. 1855-1872, this company, founded by Henry Terhune and George B. Edwards, produced shelf clocks with 30-hour wood movements. It moved to 18 Cortland St. in 1872.
- ELI TERRY SR. – East Windsor, Conn., 1772-1810
- ELI TERRY & SONS – Plymouth, Conn., 1818-1824
- TERRY, Eli & Samuel – Plymouth, Conn., 1824-1827
- ELI TERRY & SONS – Plymouth, Conn., 1825-1836
- TERRY R. (Ralph.) & J. B. (John Burnam) – Bristol, Conn., 1835-1836
- ELI TERRY JR. CO. – Northbury, Conn., 1830-1841
- TERRY (Ralph. & Theo.) AND ANDREWS – Bristol, Conn., 1842-1850; Ansonia, Conn., 1850-1852)
- S. B. TERRY – Terryville, Conn., 1831-1852
- TERRY (R. E.) DOWNS (Franklin & George) & BURWELL – Bristol, Conn., 1851-1852
- TERRY (Theo.) & BARNUM (P. T.) – Bridgeport, Conn., 1850-1855
- S. B. TERRY & CO. – Terryville, Conn., 1852-1853
- TERRY (R. E.) & DOWNS (George) – Bristol, Conn., 1853-1856
- TERRY (Theo.) BARNES (Horace) – Boston, Mass., 1854
- TERRYVILLE MANUFACTURING. Co. – Terryville, Conn., 1853-1854
- S. B. TERRY – Terryville, Conn., 1854-1859
- TERRY CLOCK CO. – Waterbury, Conn., 1867-1880
- TERRY CLOCK CO. – Pittsfield, Mass., 1880-1884
THOMPSON (THE) ELECTRIC CLOCK CO.
– Memphis, Tenn., c. 1915
TIFFANY ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO.
– Buffalo, N.Y., 1904
TIFFANY NEVER-WIND CLOCK CO.
TIME TELEGRAPH CO. (1883-1887)
Established in Zeeland, Michigan, 1937-1968, the company was purchased by Sligh, Zeeland, Michigan
- TWISS, Austin – Meriden, Conn.
- TWISS, Benjamin, Meriden, Conn.
- TWISS, B. & H. – Meriden, Conn., 1831-1834
- TWISS, Hiram – Meriden, Conn., 1834
- TWISS, Ira – Meriden, Conn.
- TWISS, H. & R.
- TWISS, J. & R. – Meriden, Conn., 1830
- TWISS, Joseph B. – Meriden, Conn., 1832 et 1837
- TWISS, Russell – Meriden, Conn.
UNITED CLOCK CORP.
United Clock Corporation, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1931-1956, bought the Sessions inventory in 1958 and closed down in 1960.
UNITED STATES CLOCK CO.
– New York, v. 1872-?
VERMONT CLOCK CO.
– Fairhaven, Conn., c. 1891-?
WALTHAM CLOCK CO., Waltham, Mass., (1897-1923) -> WALTHAM WATCH CO. (1913-1940)
WALTHAM ELECTRIC CLOCK CO., Natick, Mass.
Waltham Electric Clock Co. was founded in New Hampshire in 1890 by a group of investors to manufacture and sell battery-powered clocks developed by Walter J. Dudley and Walter K. Menns in Waltham, Mass. in 1890.
WALTHAM WATCH CO. – Waltham, Mass., (1925-1957)
Waltham produced watches and clocks until 1957. The company became Waltham Precision Instrument Company but ceased the manufacture of watches. Hallmark Watch Company of Chicago, Illinois acquired the rights to use the name Waltham and used it for its imported watches.
WARREN MANUFACTURING CO. -> TRACY BAKER & CO.
WARREN TELECHRON CO.
- WATERBURY CLOCK CO., Benedict Branch – Burnham, Waterbury, Conn., 1857-1944
- R. H. INGERSOL – BROTHER (New York City, N.Y., 1880-1922 – then purchased by Waterbury Clock)
- UNITED STATES TIME CORPORATION – Middlebury, Conn., 1944-1969
- TIMEX CORPORATION – Middlebury, Conn., 1969-2008
- TIMEX GROUP USA, INC. – Middlebury, Conn., 2008…
- WEBB C. BALL CO. and BALL – CO. – Cleveland, Ohio, 1879-1903
- WEBB C. BALL WATCH CO. – Cleveland, Ohio, 1903-1980
WELCH, E. N.
- BARTHOLOMEW, HILLS & BROWN – Forestville, Conn., the 1830s.
- BARNES AND WELCH CO. – Forestville, Conn., 1831-1834
- FORESTVILLE MANUFACTURING. Co. – Forestville, Conn., 1835-1839; purchased by J. C. Brown in 1842
- J. C. BROWN & CO.; FORESTVILLE MFG. CO.; THE FORESTVILLE MFG. CO., J.C. BROWN – Bristol, Conn., 1842-1849 – absorbed by E. Welch’s Bristol Brass and Clock, 1855
- BRISTOL BRASS AND CLOCK CO. Bristol, Conn., 1850
- FORESTVILLE CLOCK MANUFACTORY, J. C. BROWN, PROPRIETOR, 1850-1855
- FORESTVILLE HARDWARE AND CLOCK CO., 1853-1855
- E. N. WELCH Purchased J.C. BROWN AND HIS COMPANIES, 1856-1864
- MANROSS CLOCK – Forestville, Conn., 1854 – absorbed by E. Welch’s Bristol Brass and Clock, 1854-1864
- F. N. OTIS – Bristol, Conn., 1856 – purchased by E. Welch, 1856-1864
- WELCH, SPRING AND CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1868-1884 – absorbed by E. N. Welch in 1884
- BIRGE PECK & CO. – Bristol, Conn., 1849-1859 – sold to Welch, Spring and Co., and absorbed by E.N. Welch in 1884
- E. N. WELCH MANUFACTURING CO. – Bristol, Conn, 1864-1903: became SESSIONS in 1903.
WESTERN CLOCK, alias WESTCLOX
- UNITED CLOCK CO. – Peru, Ill., 1885-1887, became Western Clock Co.
- WESTERN CLOCK CO. – Peru, Ill., 1887-1888, became Western Clock Manufacturing Co.
- WESTERN CLOCK MANUFACTURING CO., “WESTCLOX” – La Salle, Ill., 1888-1912
- WESTERN CLOCK CO. Ltd., “WESTCLOX” – Peru, Ill., U.S.A., 1912-1931, merger with Seth Thomas Clock Co.
- WESTERN CLOCK CO., “WESTCLOX,” DIV. OF THE GENERAL TIME CORP. – U.S.A., 1931-1936
- WESTERN CLOCK CO. bought Sterling Clock Co. of New York c. 1933 and named Sterling his electric clocks.
- WESTCLOX DIV. OF THE GENERAL TIME CORP. – U.S.A., 1936-200)
- THE GENERAL TIME CORP. – Norcross, Georgia, 1930-2001
WILLARD AND FRICK MANUFACTURING COMPANY
J. L. Willard and F. A. Frick of Rochester, New York, created the Willard and Frick Manufacturing Company (1894-1900) as the world’s first card-time recorder company. The company contracted with William Gardam & Son of New York, New York, to manufacture and ship card time recorders to Rochester, New York, where they were assembled in cases and tested before final shipment under the trade name of “Rochester.” Willard and Frick later became part of the International Time Recording Co., a major element of the future I.B.M.” (I.B.M. Archives, 1894)
YALE CLOCK CO.
– New Haven, Conn., 1881-1883
YEAR CLOCK CO.
– New York, N.Y., 1841-?
Next: 3.04 – Clockmaking in Great-Britain